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1979–Susan B. Anthony, an activist for the cause of women’s suffrage, is commemorated on a U.S. coin, the Susan B. Anthony dollar. The coin, roughly the size of a quarter, causes confusion for many Americans and the U.S. Treasury Department eventually stops producing the ill-fated coin.

69–Bataafs nobleman, Gaius Julius Civilis, is proclaimed Emperor of Syria.

69–Tiberius Julius Alexander orders his Roman legions in Alexandria to swear allegiance to Vespasian as Emperor.

70–Roman General Titus and his forces set up battering rams to assault the walls of Jerusalem.

552–Ostrogoth King, Totila, dies during combat in the Battle of Taginae in Taginae, Italy. He was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths, reigning from 541 to 552. Totila proved himself both as a military and political leader, winning the support of the lower classes by liberating slaves and distributing land to the peasants.

1097–Crusaders led by Prince Bohemond of Taranto defeat a Seljuk army led by sultan Kilij Arslan I.

1109–Alfonso VI of León and Castile dies in Toledo, Spain, at age 69.

1200–Sunglasses are invented in China.

1242–Mongol ruler, Chagatai Khan, dies in Almaligh, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, at age 58.

1277–Egyptian Sultan, Baibars, dies from drinking poisoned kumis (intended for someone else) in Damascus, Mamluk Sultanate, at age 54. He was the fourth sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri Dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France.

1431–The Battle of La Higueruela takes place in Granada, leading to a modest advance of the Kingdom of Castile during the Reconquista.

1481–Christian II of Denmark is born at Nyborg Castle on the island of Funen, Denmark. After his short reign in Sweden, where he was also known as Christian the Tyrant, he was deposed by the nobleman, Gustav Vasa. His reign in Denmark and Norway was cut short when his uncle deposed him and took the thrones as Frederick I.

1506–Louis II of Hungary is born in Buda (present-day Budapest), Kingdom of Hungary. He was King of Hungary, Croatia, and King of Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.

1523–Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes become the first Lutheran martyrs to be burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels, Belguim.

1534–Frederick II of Denmark is born at Haderslevhus Castle in Haderslev, Denmark.

1555–John Bradford, English Reformer and martyr, dies by being burned at the stake in Smithfield, London, England, at age 44. There is a 19th-century tradition tracing to Bradford the saying, "There but for the grace of God go I," as an expression of humility and reliance on God's grace rather than his own morality.

1569–The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania confirm a real union. The united country is called the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or the Republic of Both Nations.

1643–The first meeting of the Westminster Assembly, a council of theologians ("divines") and members of the Parliament of England appointed to restructure the Church of England, takes place at Westminster Abbey in London, England.

1690–The Battle of the Boyne takes place in Ireland.

1731–The first circulating library is established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1736–Ottoman sultan, Ahmed III, dies in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire, at age 62.

1766–Jean-François de la Barre, a young French nobleman, is tortured and beheaded before his body is burnt on a pyre along with a copy of Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique nailed to his torso. His crime is not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession in Abbeville, France.

1770–Lexell's Comet passes closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u. (astronomical units) or 1,400,000 miles.

1776–The first vote on the Declaration of Independence is taken.

1782–American privateers attack the British settlement of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.

1782–Politician, Charles Watson-Wentworth, dies during an influenza epidemic in Wimbledon, Surrey, England, at age 52. He was Prime Minister of Great Britain for two terms (1765-1782).

1804–Novelist, George Sand, is born Amantine Lucile Dupin in Paris, France. She took the male nom de plume to be able to write, as it was considered inappropriate for women to have professions. She was the author of many novels including Consuelo, The Master Bellringers, Indiana, and Valentine. She was also known for her “scandalous” lifestyle, divorcing her husband and choosing a career as a writer, as well as her long affair with composer, Frédéric Chopin.

1819–Johann Georg Tralles discovers the Great Comet of 1819, (C/1819 N1). It is the first comet analyzed using polarimetry, by François Arago.

1837–A system of civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths is established in England and Wales.

1855–The Quinault and the Quileute cede their land to the United States.

1858–A joint reading is held of Charles Darwin’s and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution at the Linnean Society in London, England.

1860–Inventor, Charles Goodyear, dies in New York, New York, at age 59. He was a self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber. In 1898, almost four decades after his death, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded and named after Goodyear by Frank Seiberling.

1862–The U.S. Congress outlaws polygamy.

1862–Emperor Alexander II grants Jews the right to publish books.

1862–The Russian State Library is founded as the Library of the Moscow Public Museum.

1862–Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria, marries Prince Louis of Hesse, the future Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse.

1863–The Battle of Gettysburg begins during the American Civil War.

1867–The British North America Act of 1867 takes effect as the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia join into confederation to create the modern nation of Canada. Sir John A. Macdonald is sworn in as the country’s first Prime Minister.

1870–The United States Department of Justice is established.

1873–Prince Edward Island joins the Canadian Confederation.

1874–The Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, goes on sale.

1878–Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.

1879–Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower.

1881–The world's first international telephone call is made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States.

1884–Private detective, Allan Pinkerton, dies from a stroke in Chicago, Illinois, at age 64. He is best known for creating the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, which is still in existence today as Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, a subsidiary of Securitas AB. At the time of his death, he was working on a system to centralize all criminal identification records, a database now maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

1885–The United States terminates its reciprocity and fishery agreement with Canada.

1889–The first “Gideon Bible” is placed in a hotel room at the Superior Hotel in Iron Mountain, Montana.

1890–Canada and Bermuda are linked by telegraph cable.

1894–Politician, Julius van Zuylen van Nijevelt, dies in The Hague, Netherlands, at age 74. He was Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

1896–Writer, Harriet Beecher Stowe, dies of Alzheimer's disease in Hartford, Connecticut, at age 85. She wrote the then controversial Uncle Tom's Cabin. She was the author of more than 20 books, including novels, three travel memoirs, and collections of articles and letters. She was influential for both her writings and her public stands on social issues of the day.

1897–21st Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Reginald Doherty beats H. Mahony (6-4, 6-4, 6-3).

1897–14th Wimbledon Women’s Tennis: Blanche Hillyard beats C. Sterry (5-7, 7-5, 6-2).

1898–During the Spanish-American War, the Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba.

1899–Actor, Charles Laughton, is born in Scarborough, North Riding of Yorkshire, England. He was trained in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and first appeared professionally on the stage in 1926. Laughton played a wide range of classical and modern parts, making a big impact in Shakespeare at the Old Vic. He appeared in the films The Private Life of Henry VIII, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, Les Miserables, Mutiny on the Bounty, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Hobson’s Choice, Witness for the Prosecution, Spartacus, and Advise & Consent. He was married to actress, Elsa Lanchester.

1899–Politician and scholar, Konstantinos Tsatsos, is born in Athens, Greece. He was President of Greece from 1975 to 1980.

1902–Director, producer, and screenwriter, William Wyler, is born in Mülhausen, Alsace-Lorraine, German Empire (present-day Mulhouse, Haut-Rhin, France). His films include These Three, Jezebel, Wuthering Heights, The Little Foxes, Mrs. Miniver, The Best Years of Our Lives, The Heiress, Detective Story, Roman Holiday, The Desperate Hours, Friendly Persuasion, Ben-Hur, The Children’s Hour, and Funny Girl.

1903–The first Tour de France bicycle race takes place.

1903–27th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Laurence Doherty beats F. Riseley (7-5, 6-3, 6-0).

1903–20th Wimbledon Women’s Tennis: Dorothea Chambers beats E. Larcombe (4-6, 6-4, 6-2).

1904–The III Summer Olympics opens in St. Louis, Missouri.

1906–Estée Lauder, CEO of Estée Lauder Cosmetics, is born Josephine Esther Mentzer in New York, New York. She was the only woman on Time magazine's 1998 list of the 20 most influential business geniuses of the 20th century.

1908–SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.

1911–Germany despatches the gunship SMS Panther to Morocco, sparking the Agadir Crisis.

1912–Environmentalist, David (Ross) Brower, is born in Berkeley, California. He was the President of Sierra Club Foundation. He also founded the John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, Friends of the Earth, the League of Conservation Voters, and Earth Island Institute.

1915–Bluesman, Willie Dixon, is born William James Dixon in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Proficient on both the upright bass and the guitar and as a vocalist, Dixon is perhaps best known as one of the most prolific songwriters of his time. Next to Muddy Waters, he is recognized as the most influential person in shaping the post-World War II sound of the Chicago blues. His songs include Hoochie Coochie Man, I Just Want to Make Love to You, Little Red Rooster, My Babe, Spoonful, and You Can't Judge a Book by the Cover.

1916–In World War I, on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 others are wounded.

1916–Dwight D. Eisenhower marries Mary “Mamie” Geneva Doud in Denver, Colorado.

1916–Actress, Olivia de Havilland, is born Olivia Mary de Havilland in Tokyo, Japan. She appeared in the films Captain Blood, The Adventures of Robin Hood, Gone with the Wind, Santa Fe Trail, Thank Your Lucky Stars, The Snake Pit, The Heiress, Not as a Stranger, Libel, Lady in a Cage, and Hush... Hush, Sweet Charlotte. Her sister is actress, Joan Fontaine.

1921–The Communist Party of China is founded.

1921–Politician, Seretse Khama, is born Seretse Goitsebeng Maphiri Khama in Serowe, Bechuanaland. He was the first President of Botswana. Born into one of the more powerful of the royal families of what was then the British Protectorate of Bechuanaland, and educated abroad in neighboring South Africa and in the United Kingdom, he returned home to lead his country's independence movement.

1922–The Great Railroad Strike of 1922 begins in the United States.

1922–TV weatherman, George (Richard) Fischbeck, is born in Wallington, New Jersey. In 1972, he began work at KABC-TV in Los Angeles, California, where he became a staple on the station's Eyewitness News broadcasts. His unique, sometimes humorous, forecasts were unscripted and often turned into an opportunity to educate his viewers on the subject of weather. He would retire from KABC-TV in 1990.

1923–The Canadian Parliament suspends all Chinese immigration.

1925–Actor, Farley (Earle) Granger, is born in San Jose, California. He appeared in the films The Purple Heart, Rope, They Live by Night, Side Street, Strangers on a Train, Behave Yourself!, Hans Christian Anderson, The Naked Street, and The Prowler.

1925–Erik Satie, French composer and pianist, dies of cirrhosis of the liver in Paris, France, at age 59. Over the course of his 27 years in residence in Arcueil, France (where Satie lived in stark simplicity), no one had ever visited his room. After his death, Satie's friends discovered an apartment replete with squalor and chaos. Among many other unsorted papers and miscellaneous items, it contained a large number of umbrellas, and two grand pianos placed one on top of the other, the upper instrument used as storage for letters and parcels. He is known for his surreal and somewhat comic titles to his compositions, such as Four Pieces in the Shape of a Pear.

1929–American cartoonist, Elzie Segar, creates "Popeye."

1931–Ice vending machines are introduced in Los Angeles, California.

1931–Wiley Post and Harold Gatty become the first men to circumnavigate the globe in a fixed-wing aircraft.

1931–United Airlines begins service (as Boeing Air Transport).

1931–Actress, Leslie Caron, is born Leslie Claire Margaret Caron in Boulogne-Biliancourt, France. She appeared in the films An American in Paris, The Story of Three Loves, Lili, Daddy Long Legs, Gaby, Gigi, The Subterraneans, Fanny, The L-Shaped Room, Father Goose, Promise Her Anything, Is Paris Burning?, The Man Who Loved Women, Damage, Chocolat, and Le Divorce.

1932–Australia's national broadcaster, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, is formed.

1932–45th Wimbledon Women’s Tennis: Helen Moody beats Helen Jacobs (6-3, 6-1).

1933–Wiley Post becomes the first person to fly solo around the world, traveling 15,596 miles in seven days, 18 hours, and 45 minutes.

1933–The German Nazi regime declares that married women shouldn't work.

1934–The Federal Communications Commission replaces the Federal Radio Commission as the regulator of U.S. broadcasting.

1934–The first x-ray photo of an entire body is taken in Rochester, New York.

1934–Actor, Jamie Farr, is born Jameel Joseph Farah in Toledo, Ohio. He is best known for the role of Klinger on the long-running TV series M*A*S*H. He appeared in the films The Blackboard Jungle, Kismet, No Time for Sergeants, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Ride Beyond Vengeance, Out of Sight, Who’s Minding the Mint?, With Six You Get Eggroll, Tora! Tora! Tora!, The Cannonball Run, and Scrooged.

1934–Actress, Jean Marsh, is born Jean Lyndsey Torren Marsh in Stoke Newington, London, England. She co-created and starred in the BBC TV series Upstairs, Downstairs. She appeared in the films The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, Cleopatra, Unearthly Stranger, Charlie Bubbles, Frenzy, The Eagle Has Landed, The Changeling, Return to Oz, and Willow.

1934–Film director and producer, Sydney (Irwin) Pollack, is born in Lafayette, Indiana. He went to New York to become an actor, and in 1960, he relocated to California, where he began directing television shows. His films include The Slender Thread, This Property is Condemned, They Shoot Horses Don't They?, Jeremiah Johnson, The Way We Were, Three Days of the Condor, Bobby Deerfield, The Electric Horseman, Absence of Malice, Tootsie, Out of Africa, The Fabulous Baker Boys, Presumed Innocent, The Firm, and The Talented Mr. Ripley.

1935–Local police and Royal Canadian Mounted Police ambush strikers participating in the On-to-Ottawa Trek in Regina, Saskatchewan

1935–Musician, James Cotton, is born in Tunica, Mississippi. He is a blues harmonica player, singer, and songwriter, who has performed and recorded with many of the great blues artists of his time. He made his first recordings in Memphis, Tennessee, for Sun Records under the direction of Sam Phillips.

1938–58th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Don Budge beats Henry Austin.

1939–Actress, Karen Black, is born Karen Blanche Ziegler in Park Ridge, Illinois. She appeared in the films You’re a Big Boy Now, Easy Rider, Five Easy Pieces, Cisco Pike, Portnoy’s Complaint, The Day of the Locust, Nashville, Family Plot, Capricorn One, Invaders from Mars, and Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean. She was married to actor-screenwriter, L.M. Kit Carson.

1939–Musician, Delaney Bramlett, of Delaney & Bonnie, is born in Pontotoc County, Mississippi. He started out as a member of The Shindogs, the house band for the TV show Shindig! He would go on to lead the band Delaney & Bonnie and Friends, which featured George Harrison and Eric Clapton among its players. He was married to blues singer, Bonnie Bramlett.

1941–The Bulova Watch Company pays $9 for the first ever network television commercial.

1941–Choreographer and dancer, Twyla Tharp, is born in Portland, Indiana. Her work often utilizes classical music, jazz, and contemporary pop music. In 1973, Tharp choreographed Deuce Coupe to the music of The Beach Boys for the Joffrey Ballet.

1942–The Australian Federal Government becomes the sole collector of income tax in Australia, as State Income Tax is abolished.

1942–Actress, Genevieve Bujold, is born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. She appeared in the films King of Hearts, Anne of the Thousand Days, Earthquake, Coma, Choose Me, and Trouble in Mind.

1942–Singer, Andraé (Edward) Crouch, is born in San Francisco, California. Referred to as “the father of modern gospel music” by contemporary Christian and gospel music professionals, Crouch was known for his compositions The Blood Will Never Lose Its Power, My Tribute (To God Be the Glory), and Soon and Very Soon.

1943–”Pay-as-you-go" income tax withholding from paychecks is established in the U.S.

1943–Tokyo City merges with Tokyo Prefecture and is dissolved. Since this date, no city in Japan has had the name "Tokyo" (as present-day Tokyo is not officially a city).

1945–Debbie Harry, of Blondie, is born Deborah (Ann) Harry in Miami, Florida. With her distinctive photogenic features and two-tone bleached-blonde hair, Harry quickly became a punk icon. Her look was further popularized by the band's early presence in the music video revolution of the era. Blondie had big hits with One Way or Another, Heart of Glass, and Rapture (one of the first mainstream “rap” songs). She appeared in the films Union City, Roadie, Videodrome, Satisfaction, Hairspray, and New York Stories.

1946–The U.S. conducts atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. A 20-kiloton bomb is exploded.

1946–Freddie Lennon, John Lennon's father, returns to Liverpool, England, and takes his five-year-old John to Blackpool for a holiday. Freddie tries to persuade his young son to leave England with him for New Zealand. John is placed in the position of having to choose between his mother and his father: he chooses to stay with his mother, Julia, but is soon after put under the care of his Aunt Mimi. John Lennon will not see his father again for almost 20 years.

1947–The Philippine Air Force is established.

1947–Rocker, Marc Benno, is born in Dallas, Taxas. He worked with singer-songwriter, Leon Russell, as a member of The Asylum Choir. Benno also worked with The Doors, Eric Clapton, Stevie Ray Vaughan, and Rita Coolidge.

1947–Comedienne and actress, Shirley (Ann) Hemphill, is born in Asheville, North Carolina. She is best known for the role of waitress Shirley Wilson on the TV sitcom What's Happening!! After the show was cancelled, Hemphill returned to stand-up comedy and also made occasional appearances in films and television.

1948–Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Quaid-i-Azam) inaugurates Pakistan's central bank, the State Bank of Pakistan.

1948–John Ford, of The Strawbs, is born in Fulham, London, England. He also toured and played with Santana, Jimi Hendrix, The Eagles, Frank Zappa, Blue Öyster Cult, ZZ Top, RUSH, REO Speedwagon, Steppenwolf, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Billy Preston, Cat Stevens, and Dave Mason.

1949–The merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ends more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family.

1949–63rd Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Ted Schroeder beat Drobny (3-6, 6-0, 6-3, 4-6, 6-4).

1950–David Duke, politician and K.K.K. member, is born David Ernest Duke in Tulsa, Oklahoma. A former one-term Republican Louisiana State Representative, he was a candidate in the Democratic presidential primaries in 1988 and the Republican presidential primaries in 1992.

1951–Actor and dancer, Terrence (Vaughan) Mann, is born in Ashland, Kentucky. He has been prominent on the Broadway stage for three decades. He appeared in Barnum, Cats, Les Miserables, Camelot, Beauty and the Beast, The Rocky Horror Show, Pippin, and Lennon.

1951–Fred Schneider, of The B-52’s, is born Frederick William Schneider III in Newark, New Jersey. The band’s hits include Rock Lobster, Private Idaho, Party Out of Bounds, Love Shack, and Roam.

1951–Victor (Edward) Willis, of The Village People, is born in Dallas, Texas. He was the naval officer character in the group. Their hits include Macho Man, Y.M.C.A., and In the Navy. He was married to actress, Phylicia Ayers-Allen.

1952–Comedian-actor, Dan Aykroyd, is born Daniel Edward Aykroyd in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. He is best known as one of the original cast members on the TV comedy show Saturday Night Live. He appeared in the films 1941, The Blues Brothers, Neighbors, Doctor Detroit, Trading Places, Ghostbusters, Into the Night, Dragnet, The Couch Trip, Driving Miss Daisy, My Girl, Sneakers, Coneheads, Feeling Minnesota, Grosse Point Blank, and 50 First Dates. He was married to actress, Donna Dixon.

1955–69th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Tony Trabert beats Kurt Nielsen (6-3, 7-5, 6-1).

1955–Country singer, (Jackie) Keith Whitley, is born in Ashland, Kentucky. He had a bit hit with Don't Close Your Eyes.

1956–Elvis Presley appears on The Steve Allen Show. Presley gamely appears in several comedy sketches and, wearing white tie and tails, sedately sings Hound Dog to a Bassett hound. Fans picket NBC-TV the next day with placards reading "We want the real Elvis!"

1956–Eleven-year-old singer, Brenda Lee, signs her first recording contract with Decca Records.

1956–Actor, Alan (Douglas) Ruck, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. He is best known for the role of Cameron Frye in the film Ferris Bueller's Day Off. He was cast in the TV shows Going Places, Mad About You, Spin City, Persons Unknown, and The Whispers. He appeared in the films Class, Bad Boys, Bloodhounds of Broadway, Three Fugitives, Young Guns II, Speed, and Twister.

1957–The International Geophysical Year begins.

1957–Actress, Lisa (Suzanne) Blount, is born in Fayetteville, Arkansas. She appeared in the films September 30, 1955, An Officer and a Gentleman, Prince of Darkness, Great Balls of Fire!, and Box of Moon Light.

1958–The flooding of Canada's Saint Lawrence Seaway begins.

1958–The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation links television broadcasting across Canada via microwave.

1958–Rudolf von Laban, modern dance choreographer, dies in Weybridge, England, at age 78. He is known as one of the pioneers of modern dance in Europe and is considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of dance. One of his great contributions to dance was his publication of Kinetographie Laban in 1928, a dance notation system that came to be called Labanotation and is still used as one of the primary movement notation systems in dance. His theories of choreography and movement are now foundations of modern dance and dance notation (choreology).

1959–Specific values for the international yard, avoirdupois pound, and derived units (e.g. inch, mile, and ounce) are adopted after agreement between the United States, the United Kingdom, and other Commonwealth countries.

1959–Jazz pianist, Dave Brubeck, records his signature tune Take Five.

1959–Actor, Dale (Alan) Midkiff, is born in Chance, Maryland. He is best known for two distinct roles: Elvis Presley in the four-hour TV mini-series Elvis and Me, and the psychotic wife beater in A Cry For Help: The Tracey Thurman Story. He also appeared in the Love Comes Softly film series. His other film appearances include Casual Sex?, Pet Sematary, and Love Potion No. 9.

1960–Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President, as Queen Elizabeth II ceases to be its head of state.

1960–Italian Somalia gains independence and unites with the Somali Republic.

1960–Fidel Castro nationalizes Esso, Shell, and Texaco in Cuba.

1960–For one week in early July, The Silver Beatles provide live musical backing for a stripper named "Janice." Unable to read the sheet music she gave them, group instead performs old standards such as The Third Man Theme, Summertime, September Song, and Begin the Beguine.

1960–74th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Neale Fraser beats Rod Laver (6-4, 3-6, 9-7, 7-5).

1960–Disco singer, Evelyn "Champagne" King, is born in the Bronx, New York. She had a hit with Shame.

1961–Martin’s Fantasy Island opens in Grand Island, New York. Rides and attractions include: Bumper Boats, Little Dipper, Antigue Cars, and the Iron Horse.

1961–Diana (Frances) Spencer, Princess of Wales, is born at Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk, England. She was married to Charles, Prince of Wales son of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana was born into a family of British nobility with royal ancestry as The Honourable Diana Spencer. She was the fourth child and third daughter of John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer, and the Honourable Frances Shand Kydd. While married, Diana bore the titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, and Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were then second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on August 28, 1996.

1962–Burundi and Rwanda gain independence from Belgium.

1963–The U.S. Post Office inaugurates five-digit (Zone Improvement Plan) ZIP codes.

1963–The Beatles record the songs for their next single She Loves You and I'll Get You. She Loves You will go on to become The Beatles' first million-selling single.

1964–Musician, Michael Nesmith, leaves San Antonio, Texas, to make a name for himself as a folk singer in Los Angeles, California. In less than three years, he will be a member of one of the most successful pop groups of all time, The Monkees.

1965–John Lennon's second book, A Spaniard in the Works, is published in the U.S. by Simon & Schuster.

1966–Medicare goes into effect in America.

1966–The first color television transmission in Canada takes place from Toronto.

1966–80th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: M. Santana beats D. Ralston.

1967–The European Community is formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission.

1967–Canada celebrates the 100th anniversary of the British North America Act, which officially made Canada its own federal dominion.

1967–Scott McKenzie scores his first hit with the single, San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair), which was produced by John Phillips of The Mamas and The Papas. The song became an anthem for the Love Generation during the “Summer of Love.”

1967–Actress, Pamela (Denise) Anderson, is born in Ladysmith, British Columbia, Canada. She is best known for her starring role in the TV series Baywatch. She was chosen as a Playmate of the Month for Playboy magazine in February 1990. She was married to Mötley Crüe drummer, Tommy Lee, and musician, Kid Rock.

1968–The United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and 58 other nations sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. It limits the spreading of nuclear material for military purposes.

1968–The United States Central Intelligence Agency's Phoenix Program is officially established.

1968–The formal separation of the United Auto Workers from the AFL-CIO takes place in the United States.

1968–The USSR conducts an underground nuclear test.

1968–John Lennon's art exhibition “You Are Here (To Yoko From John Lennon, With Love)” opens at the Robert Fraser Gallery in London, England. It mostly consists of charity collection boxes, although there is a white canvas with the tiny inscription (in John’s hand): “You Are Here.” The show is launched with the release of 365 balloons which have attached reply cards addressed to Apple. John is surprised when the majority of the cards that are returned are harsh criticisms of his new life style and racist comments about Yoko Ono.

1969–Sam Phillips, the man who first recorded Elvis Presley, sells his label, Sun Records.

1969–Britain's Prince Charles is invested as the Prince of Wales.

1969–After visiting John Lennon's aunt in Durness, Sutherland, Scotland, John, his son Julian, Yoko, and her daughter Kyoko, are in an auto accident in Golspie, Scotland. Lennon, being an inexperienced and nervous driver, somehow runs the car off the road and into a ditch, but no other vehicles are involved. John requires 17 stitches to close a facial wound; Yoko receives 14 stitches, crushed vertabrae and a concussion; Kyoko needs four stitches; and Julian suffers from shock.

1970–President General Yahya Khan abolishes One-Unit of West Pakistan restoring the provinces.

1970–Disc jockey, Casey Kasem, begins his weekly Billboard magazine countdown on the nationally syndicated radio show American Top 40.

1972–Ms. magazine begins publication.

1972–The first Gay Pride march in England takes place.

1972–The first Gay Pride march takes place in England.

1972–Celebrity and executive chef, Alex Guarnaschelli, is born Alexandra Guarnaschelli in New York, New York. She appears as a TV personality on the Food Network shows Chopped, Iron Chef America, All Star Family Cook-off, and The Best Thing I Ever Ate. In 2012, she was crowned America's Next Iron Chef on Iron Chef America, currently the only woman with that distinction.

1973–Jesus Christ Superstar closes in New York City after 720 performances on Broadway. The cast album had quickly become a million seller.

1974–General Pinochet becomes President of Chile.

1974–Juan Peron, President of Argentina (1946-1955 and 1973-1974), dies of a heart attack in Olivos, Buenos Aires, Argentina, at age 78.

1975–Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Bugner in Round 15 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1975–Ringo Starr divorces his wife, Maureen Cox, after 10 years of marriage.

1977–84th Wimbledon Women’s Tennis: Virginia Wade beats B. Stove.

1977–Actress, Liv Tyler, is born Liv Rundgren in New York, New York. She appeared in the films Silent Fall, Empire Records, Stealing Beauty, That Thing You Do!, Inventing the Abbotts, U Turn, Armageddon, One Night at McCool’s, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, and Reign Over Me. Her parents are rocker, Steven Tyler, and model, Bebe Buell. From 1972 to 1979, her mother lived with rock musician, Todd Rundgren, and when Liv was born, she was given his name. Liv found out who her biological father was when she was eight years old.

1978–The Northern Territory in Australia is granted self-government.

1979–Sony introduces the Walkman cassette tape player.

1979–Susan B. Anthony, an activist for the cause of women’s suffrage, is commemorated on a U.S. coin, the Susan B. Anthony dollar. The coin, roughly the size of a quarter, causes confusion for many Americans and the U.S. Treasury Department eventually stops producing the ill-fated coin.

1980–O Canada officially becomes the national anthem of Canada.

1981–The Wonderland murders occur in the early morning hours in Los Angeles, California, allegedly masterminded by businessman and drug dealer, Eddie Nash.

1981–Rushton Moreve, of Steppenwolf, dies in a car crash in Los Angeles, California.

1983–A North Korean Ilyushin Il-62M jet, en route to Conakry Airport in Guinea, crashes into the Fouta Djallon mountains in Guinea-Bissau, killing all 23 people on board.

1983–Inventor-philosopher, R. Buckminster Fuller, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 87. “Bucky” Fuller created the geodesic dome structure and came up with other futurisitc, environmentally-friendly housing concepts that were not allowed to be put into widespread use, due to harsh resistance from the established housing industry.

1984–The PG-13 film rating is introduced by the MPAA.

1987–The American radio station WFAN in New York City is launched as the world's first all-sports radio station.

1989–Playboy publisher, Hugh Hefner, marries playmate, Kimberly Conrad.

1990–East Germany accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency, uniting the economies of East and West Germany.

1991–The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague, Czech Republic.

1991–Court TV debuts on cable TV. The network will broadcast entire trials, both famous and low profile. It is a unique addition to the already changing climate of TV “infotainment.”

1991–Actor, Michael Landon, dies of pancreatic cancer in Malibu, California, at age 54. He is best known for his starring roles on the TV shows Bonanza, Little House on the Prairie, and Highway to Heaven. He appeared in the films These Wilder Years, I Was a Teenage Werewolf, High School Confidential!, God’s Little Acre, and The Legend of Tom Dooley.

1995–Disc jockey, Wolfman Jack, dies of a heart attack at his home in Belvidere, North Carolina, at age 57. He had just returned from a whirlwind tour promoting his autobiography Have Mercy!: Confessions of the Original Rock ’n’ Roll Animal. Fans first learned to love the Wolfman in 1963, when he worked at the 250,000-watt radio station XERF, which was heard all over North America. He also appeared in the 1973 movie American Graffiti, and hosted the TV show The Midnight Special.

1995–Ian Parkin, of Be-Bop Deluxe, dies in England, at age 45.

1996–Alan Blakley, of The Tremeloes, dies of cancer in England, at age 54. The group’s hits include I Want Candy, Here Comes My Baby, Silence is Golden, and Even the Bad Times Are Good.

1996–Model-actress, Margaux Hemingway, dies of suicide from a drug overdose in Santa Monica, California, at age 42. She appeared on the covers of Cosmopolitan, Elle, Harper's Bazaar, and Vogue. She appeared in the films Lipstick, Killer Fish, Over the Brooklyn Bridge, and Inner Sanctum.

1996–Screenwriter, Steve Tesich, dies of a heart attack in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, at age 53. His work includes Breaking Away, Eyewitness, Four Friends, The World According to Garp, American Flyers, and Eleni.

1997–China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.

1997–Actor, Robert Mitchum, dies of lung cancer in Santa Barbara, California, at age 79. He appeared in the films The Story of G.I. Joe, West of the Pecos, Out of the Past, Rachel and the Stranger, The Red Pony, Holiday Affair, His Kind of Woman, Macao, The Lusty Men, River of No Retrun, Track of the Cat, Not as a Stranger, The Night of the Hunter, Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison, Thunder Road, Home from the Hill, The Sundowerns, Cape Fear, Two for the Seesaw, What a Way to Go!, The Way West, 5 Card Stud, Ryan’s Daughter, Farewell, My Lovely, and The Big Sleep.

1998–Singer, Barbra Streisand, marries actor, James Brolin, in Malibu, California.

1999–The Scottish Parliament is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on the day that legislative powers are officially transferred from the old Scottish Office in London, England, to the new devolved Scottish Executive in Edinburgh, Scotland.

1999–American candy magnate, Forrest Edward Mars, Sr., dies in Miami, Florida, at age 95. He created M&M's and the Mars bar. He retired from Mars, Inc. in 1973, turning the company over to his children. At the time of his death, he had amassed a fortune of $4 billion and was ranked as 30th in Forbes magazine's list of richest Americans.

1999–Singer, Guy Mitchell, dies from complications of cancer surgery in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 72. He was a pop singer, successful in America, Britain, and Australia. He sold 44 million records, including six million-selling singles.

1999–Actress, Sylvia Sidney, dies of esophageal cancer in New York, New York, at age 89. She appeared in the films An American Tragedy, City Streets, Street Scene, Sabotage, Fury, Les Misérables, Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams, I Never Promised You a Rose Garden, Hammett, and Beetlejuice.

2000–Cub Koda, guitarist for Brownsville Station, dies of kidney disease at age 51. The group had a bit hit with Smokin’ in the Boy’s Room.

2000–Actor, Walter Matthau, dies of a heart attack in Santa Monica, California, at age 79. He appeared in the films Bigger Than Life, A Face in the Crowd, King Creole, Onionhead, Strangers When We Meet, Lonely Are the Brave, Charade, Ensign Pulver, Fail-Safe, Goodbye Charlie, The Fortune Cookie, The Odd Couple, Hello, Dolly!, Cactus Flower, Plaza Suite, Pete ‘n’ Tllie, The Front Page, The Sunshine Boys, California Suite, JFK, and Grumpy Old Men.

2002–The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.

2002–Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 and a DHL (German cargo) Boeing 757 collide in mid-air over Überlingen, southern Germany, killing all 71 people on board.

2003–Over 500,000 people protest against efforts to pass anti-sedition legislation in Hong Kong.

2003–Jazz flutist, Herbie Mann, dies of prostate cancer in Pecos, New Mexico, at age 73. He was among the first jazz musicians to specialize on the flute. His most popular single was Hijack, which was a Billboard #1 dance hit for three weeks in 1975.

2004–Actor, Marlon Brando, dies of respiratory failure in Westwood, California, at age 80. A cultural icon, he is hailed for bringing a gripping realism to film acting, and is frequently cited as the greatest and most influential film actor of all time. He appeared in the films A Streetcar Named Desire, Viva Zapata!, Julius Caesar, The Wild One, On the Waterfront, Guys and Dolls, Sayonara, The Young Lions, The Fugitive Kind, One-Eye Jacks, Mutiny on the Bounty, The Ugly American, Bedtime Story, The Godfather, Last Tango in Paris, The Missouri Breaks, Apocalypse Now, A Dry White Season, and The Island of Dr. Moreau.

2005–Singer, Luther Vandross, dies of a heart attack in Edison, New Jersey, at age 54. During his career, Vandross sold over 25 million records worldwide. His hit songs include Never Too Much, Here and Now, Any Love, Power of Love/Love Power, I Can Make It Better, and For You to Love.

2006–The Qinghai-Tibet Railway begins operation in China.

2007–Smoking is banned in all public indoor spaces in England. With the ban already in force in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, it is now illegal to smoke in indoor public places anywhere in the United Kingdom.

2007–The Concert for Diana is held at the new Wembley Stadium in London, England, and is broadcast in 140 countries.

2008–Rioting erupts in Mongolia in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the 2008 legislative elections.

2009–Actor, Karl Malden, dies of natural causes in Los Angeles, California, at age 97. He is best known for the role of Lt. Mike Stone on the 1970s TV crime drama The Streets of San Francisco. He appeared in the films Halls of Montezuma, A Streetcar Named Desire, Ruby Gentry, I Confess, On the Waterfront, Baby Doll, Fear Strikes Out, Pollyanna, The Great Imposter, One-Eyed Jacks, Parrish, All Fall Down, Birdman of Alcatraz, How the West Was Won, Gypsy, Dead Ringer, Cheyenne Autumn, The Cincinnati Kid, Nevada Smith, Murderers’ Row, Patton, Wild Rovers, and Nuts.

2011–Journalist, Maria Shriver, divorces actor, Arnold Schwarzenegger, due to irreconcilable differences after 25 years of marriage.

2013–Demonstrations occur across Egypt with 15 million people calling for the resignation of President Mohammed Morsi.

2013–Neptune's moon S/2004 N 1 is discovered.

2013–Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union.

2013–Game designer, Charles Foley, dies of Alzheimer's disease at the Golden Living Center in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, at age 82. He was co-creator of Twister. He received only 2.5% royalties for three years from Milton Bradley, which amounted to about $27,000. The game became a nationwide sensation in 1966. Foley invented dozens of other toys and games, and had 97 patented inventions.

2014–Activist, Stephen Gaskin, dies of natural causes in Summertown, Tennessee, at age 79. He was a counterculture Hippie icon, best known for his presence in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, California, in the 1960s. He co-founded "The Farm," a famous spiritual intentional community in Summertown, Tennessee.

2015–Militants launch attacks on Egyptian Armed Forces checkpoints in North Sinai, killing dozens of security personnel and insurgents.

2016–The new Belarusian ruble replaces the old Belarusian ruble during redenomination.

2016–U Gambira, a former Burmese monk and one of the most visible leaders during Myanmar's 2007 Saffron Revolution, is released from prison after having the charges against him dropped.

2016–Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte urges Filipino citizens to murder people suspected of using illegal drugs.

2016–Terrorists storm a restaurant, exchange fire with security, and take hostages in the Gulshan neighborhood of Dhaka, Bangladesh. ISIS claims responsibility for the attack.

2017–Amid a budget crisis, Governor Chris Christie shuts down the state government of New Jersey.

2017–India replaces its federal and state taxes with the Goods and Services Tax (GST), the most extensive tax reform since its independence.

2017–Singapore implements a new law that bans foreigners from taking part in protests.

2017–Canada celebrates the sesquicentennial (150-year) anniversary of the Canadian Confederation.

2018–Vermont becomes the ninth U.S. state to legalize marijuana.

2018–Leftist, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, is elected president of Mexico.

2018–A man stabs multiple people celebrating a three-year-old's birthday party at an apartment complex housing refugees in Boise, Idaho. Nine people are injured, including six children.

2018–Journalist, Roy Carr, dies in England, at age 73. His books include The Beatles: An Illustrated Record, The Rolling Stones: An Illustrated Record, David Bowie: An Illustrated Record, Elvis Presley: The Illustrated Record, and The Beatles at the Movies.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: The first sunglasses; Louis II of Hungary; Lexell's Comet; Charles Goodyear; Prince Edward Island; Harriet Beecher Stowe; William Wyler; Willie Dixon; Farley Granger; Leslie Caron; Jean Marsh; Karen Black; Andraé Crouch; Freddie Lennon; The Strawbs; Dan Aykroyd; Alan Ruck, Dale Midkiff; Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales; A Spaniard in the Works by John Lennon; Pamela Anderson; Prince Charles; Alex Guarnaschelli; Liv Tyler; Buckminster Fuller; Michael Landon; Steve Tesich; Guy Mitchell; Marlon Brando; Karl Malden; and Stephen Gaskin.

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