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1985–The Live Aid concert for African famine relief takes place in both Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (JFK Stadium) and London, England (Wembley Stadium) and is telecast worldwide. The 16-hour, all-day and much-of-the-night concert, features some of the biggest names in rock music, including Mick Jagger, Tina Turner, Madonna, Bob Dylan, and Paul McCartney. Over 162,000 people attend the concert and another 1.5 billion view it on TV. The event, organized by Bob Geldof, raises over $100 million.

BC 587–Babylon's siege of Jerusalem ends following the destruction of Solomon's Temple.

BC 100–Roman general and statesman, (Gaius) Julius Caesar, is born in Rome. Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. One of Caesar’s most important actions was his reform of the calendar. The calendar was then regulated by the movement of the Moon, and this had left it in a mess. Caesar replaced this calendar with the Egyptian calendar, which was regulated by the Sun. He set the length of the year to 365.25 days, by adding an intercalary/leap day at the end of February every fourth year. The Julian calendar began on January 1, 45 BC. This calendar is almost identical to the modern day Western calendar.

574–Pope John III dies.

716–Emperor Ruizong of Tang dies.

939–Pope Leo VII dies.

1024–Holy Roman Emperor, Henry II, dies from a chronic urinary infection near Göttingen, Germany, Holy Roman Empire, at age 51.

1174–William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England.

1249–The Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots takes place.

1260–The Livonian Order suffers its greatest defeat in the 13th century in the Battle of Durbe against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1402–Emperor Jianwen of China dies in a fire in the Imperial Palace in Nanjing, China, at age 24. His charred body, presented to the Yongle Emperor, was not given a full burial and there is no known tomb of the Jianwen Emperor. There were rumours that the Jianwen Emperor managed to escape from Nanjing by disguising himself as a Buddhist monk.

1490–John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church in Hrastovlje (present-day southwestern Slovenia).

1558–In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul de Thermes at Gravelines.

1573–In the Eighty Years' War, the Siege of Haarlem ends after seven months.

1590–Pope Clement X is born.

1608–Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, is born in Graz, Austria. He was also King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria.

1643–In the English Civil War, Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, heavily defeats the Parliamentarian forces led by Sir William Waller in the Battle of Roundway Down.

1756–English engraver, Thomas Rowlandson, is born in Old Jewry, London, England. He is best known for his depictions of English domestic life that were sometimes erotic, almost to the point of being pornographic.

1785–Politician, Stephen Hopkins, signer of the Declaration of Independence, dies in Providence, Rhode Island, at age 78. He was a governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and a Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court.

1787–The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery.

1793–Journalist and French revolutionary, Jean-Paul Marat, is assassinated in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a member of the opposing political faction.

1794–The Battle of the Vosges is fought between French forces and those of Prussia and Austria.

1811–Gothic revival architect, George Gilbert Scott, is born at the Parsonage, Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, England. Scott started his career designing workhouses and lunatic asylums. He would ultimately be known as one of the most prolific architects of his time. Scott designed or redesigned more than 800 buildings in his career, including the Prince Albert Memorial, the Midland Grand Hotel at St. Pancras Station, the main building of the University of Glasgow, and St. Mary's Cathedral in Edinburgh, Scotland.

1814–The Carabinieri, the national gendarmerie of Italy, is established.

1817–Author, Jane Austen, dies in Winchester, England, at age 41.

1830–The General Assembly's Institution, now the Scottish Church College (one of the pioneering institutions that ushered the Bengali renaissance), is founded by Alexander Duff and Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Calcutta, India.

1837–Queen Victoria moves into Buckingham Palace in London, England. She is the first monarch to do so.

1854–In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General José María Yáñez stops the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon.

1863–In New York City, opponents of conscription (the military draft) begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in U.S. history.

1871–The first cat show is held at the Crystal Palace in London, England.

1878–In the Treaty of Berlin, the European powers redraw the map of the Balkans: Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.

1893–American Tribal Chief of the Oglala Sioux, Young Man Afraid of His Horses, dies of a heart attack near Newcastle, Wyoming, at age 57. Commonly misinterpreted, his name means “they fear his horse” or “his horse is feared,” declaring that the bearer of the name was so feared in battle that even the sight of his horse would inspire fear. He is known for his participation in Red Cloud's War, as a negotiator for the Sioux Nation after the Wounded Knee Massacre, and for serving on delegations to Washington, D.C.

1898–Guglielmo Marconi patents the radio.

1901–Mickey “Toy Bulldog” Walker, Welterweight Boxing Champion (1922-1926), is born Edward Patrick Walker in Elizabeth, New Jersey.

1905–The verdict in the six-month-long Smarthavicharam trial of Kuriyedath Thathri is pronounced, leading to the excommunication of 65 men of various castes.

1909–Politician, Prince Souphanouvong, is born in Luang Phrabang, Laos. He was the first President of Laos. Educated in France and Vietnam, he eventually became a supporter of Ho Chi Minh, and joined the Indochinese communist movement.

1913–Journalist, Dave Garroway, is born.

1919–The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.

1923–The Hollywood sign is officially dedicated in the hills above Hollywood in Los Angeles, California. It originally reads "Hollywoodland," for promoting home development in the Hollywood Hills, but the four last letters are dropped after its renovation in 1949.

1928–Actor, Bob Crane, is born Robert Edward Crane in Waterbury, Connecticut. He is best known for his starring role on the TV comedy Hogan's Heroes. He also was cast as a regular on The Donna Reed Show. He appeared in the films Return to Peyton Place, Man-Trap, The New Interns, and Superdad.

1933–Actress, Patsy Byrne, is born Patricia Byrne in Ashford, Kent, England. She appeared in the films The Ruling Class, The Class of Miss MacMichael, Britannia Hospital, Mr. Love, Stealing Heaven, Hanna’s War, Emily’s Ghost, The Higher Mortals, The Treasure Seekers, The Gingerbread House, and Les Misérables.

1933–Mobster, Mickey Spillane, is born in Hell’s Kitchen, New York. He was called the "last of the gentleman gangsters."

1933–Writer, David Storey, is born David Malcolm Story in Wakefield, Yorkshire, England. He wrote the screenplay for This Sporting Life, directed by Lindsay Anderson, adapted from his first novel of the same name (originally published in 1960).

1934–Dennis (Michael) Crosby is born in Los Angeles, California. He was the son of actor-singer, Bing Crosby. His brother was actor Gary Crosby and his sister is Mary Crosby.

1936–Saxophonist, Albert Ayler, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. After early experience playing R&B and bebop, Ayler began recording music during the free jazz era of the 1960s. His innovations have inspired subsequent jazz musicians.

1939–A young Frank Sinatra records for the first time with the Harry James band, cutting Melancholy Mood and From the Bottom of My Heart.

1940–Celebrity Creole chef, Paul Prudhomme, is born in Opelousas, Louisiana. Chef Paul, as he is called, is credited with popularizing Creole and Cajun cuisine through television appearances, cookbooks, and his own line of culinary products. He is the chef proprietor of K-Paul's Louisiana Kitchen in in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana.

1940–Actor, Patrick Stewart, is born in England.

1941–During World War II, Montenegrins begin a popular uprising against the Axis powers.

1942–Actor, Harrison Ford, is born. He appeared in the films American Graffiti, Star Wars, Presumed Innocent, Regarding Henry, and the “Indiana Jones” series that began with Raiders of the Lost Ark.

1942–Roger McGuinn, of The Byrds, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He started singing backup for The Chad Mitchell Trio, Bobby Darin, and The Limelighters, before starting his own group, The Byrds. The group had two #1 songs in 1965: Mr. Tambourine Man and Turn! Turn! Turn!

1944–Architect and educator, Erno Rubik, is born. He created the puzzle game, Rubik’s Cube.

1946–Actor, Cheech Marin, is born.

1951–Austrian composer, Arnold Schönberg, dies in Vienna, at age 76. He is the father of 12-tone or serial music. Schoenberg's superstitious nature may have triggered his death. The composer had triskaidekaphobia (the fear of the number 13), and he feared he would die during a year that was a multiple of 13. He dreaded his 65th birthday (in 1939) so much that a friend asked astrologer, Dane Rudhyar, to prepare Schoenberg's horoscope. Rudhyar did so and told Schoenberg that the year was dangerous, but not fatal. But in 1950, on his 76th birthday, an astrologer wrote Schoenberg a note warning him that the year was a critical one: 7 + 6 = 13. This stunned and depressed the composer, for up to that point he had only been wary of multiples of 13 and never considered adding the digits of his age. Schoenberg stayed in bed all day, feeling sick, anxious, and depressed. He surely died as he expected.

1953–Swinger, Louis Prima, marries vocalist, Keely Smith (his fourth wife).

1954–Painter, Frida Kahlo, dies.

1954–Country singer, Louise Mandrell, is born.

1955–Mark Mendoza, of Twisted Sister, is born.

1956–Boxer, Michael Spinks, is born.

1957–Elvis Presley tops the English charts for the first time with All Shook Up.

1957–Film director, Cameron Crowe, is born.

1960–John F. Kennedy wins the Democratic Presidential Nomination at his party's convention in Los Angeles, California.

1962–In an unprecedented action, British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, dismisses seven members of his Cabinet, marking the effective end of the National Liberals as a distinct force within British politics.

1962–Comedian and voice actor, Tom Kenny, is born.

1968-Steppenwolf's Born To Be Wild is released.

1973–Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the "Nixon tapes" to the special U.S. Senate committee investigating the Watergate break-in.

1973–The Everly Brothers call it quits during a concert at the John Wayne Theatre in Buena Park, California. Phil Everly walks off the stage in the middle of the show and brother Don says, “The Everly Brothers died 10 years ago.” The duo reunited a decade later for a short time.

1977–Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ogaden War.

1977–A blackout lasting 25 hours hits the New York City area. The massive power failure (at 9:34 p.m. EDT) causes looting and rioting. The police arrest at least 3,000 looters.

1980–Politician, Seretse Khama, dies of pancreatic cancer in Gaborone, Botswana, at age 59. He was the first President of Botswana. Shortly before his death, Khama would play a major role in negotiating the end of the Rhodesian civil war and the resulting creation and independence of Zimbabwe.

1985–Vice President George H.W. Bush becomes “acting” President for the day, when President Ronald Reagan undergoes surgery to remove polyps from his colon.

1985–The Live Aid concert for African famine relief takes place in both Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (JFK Stadium) and London, England (Wembley Stadium) and is telecast worldwide. The 16-hour, all-day and much-of-the-night concert, features some of the biggest names in rock music, including Mick Jagger, Tina Turner, Madonna, Bob Dylan, and Paul McCartney. Over 162,000 people attend the concert and another 1.5 billion view it on TV. The event, organized by Bob Geldof, raises over $100 million.

1992–An appeals court in New York rules that Jett Williams, the secret daughter of Hank Williams, is entitled to share the royalties from his songs. In 1984, Jett had hired investigator Keith Adkinson, who found that Jett had been deliberately defrauded out of her father’s estate and his copyright royalties. Adkinson sued on her behalf. On October 26, 1987, the Alabama Circuit Court ruled that Hank Williams was Jett’s father. On July 5, 1989, the Alabama Supreme Court ruled that Jett had been defrauded and awarded her half of her father’s estate.

1996–Chas Chandler, bassist for The Animals, dies in a British hospital at age 57. Chandler discovered Jimi Hendrix and became his manager, leading him through the process of becoming a superstar.

2003–French DGSE personnel abort an operation to rescue Ingrid Betancourt from FARC rebels in Colombia, causing a political scandal when details are leaked to the press.

2004–Arthur Kane, of The New York Dolls, dies.

2006–Actor, Red Buttons, dies of complications from high blood pressure in Los Angeles, California, at age 87. He appeared in the films Winged Victory, Sayonara, The Big Circus, Hatari!, Five Weeks in a Balloon, The Longest Day, A Ticklish Affair, Your Cheatin’ Heart, Up From the Beach, Harlow, Stagecoach, They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?, The Poseidon Adventure, Gable and Lombard, Viva Knievel, The Users, Movie Movie, C.H.O.M.P.S., When Time Ran Out, The Dream Merchants, Reunion at Fairborough, Alice in Wonderland, 18 Again!, It Could Happen to You, and The Story of Us.

2008–The Battle of Wanat begins when Taliban and al-Qaeda guerrillas attack U.S. Army and Afghan National Army troops in Afghanistan.

2009–Radio personality, Pat Gray, joins The Glenn Beck Program.

2010–Businessman, George Steinbrenner, dies of a heart attack in Tampa, Florida, at age 80. He was the principal owner and managing partner of Major League Baseball's New York Yankees. During Steinbrenner's 37-year ownership from 1973 to 2010, the longest in club history, the Yankees earned seven World Series titles and 11 pennants.

2011–Mumbai, India, is rocked by three bomb blasts during the evening rush hour, killing 26 people and injuring 130 others.

2012–Sage Stallone, son of actor, Sylvester Stallone, dies of a heart attack in Studio City, California, at age 36.

2012–Film producer, Richard D. Zanuck, dies of a heart attack in Beverly Hills, California, at age 77. His films include The Chapman Report, The Sound of Music, The Sugarland Express, Jaws, MacArthur, The Verdict, Cocoon, Driving Miss Daisy, Rich in Love, Wild Bill, Deep Impact, Road to Perdition, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and Alice in Wonderland.

2013–George Zimmerman is found not guilty in the shooting of Trayvon Martin.

2013–Typhoon Soulik kills at least nine people and affects more than 160 million in East China and Taiwan.

2013–Actor, Cory Monteith, dies of a drug and alcohol overdose in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, at age 31. Monteith, who had battled substance abuse since his teens, had voluntarily checked into rehab in March 2013. He is best known for co-starring in the TV series Glee.

2013–Politician, Vernon B. Romney, dies in Salt Lake City, Utah, at age 89. He was the 14th Attorney General of Utah.

2015–Science Daily announces that researchers predict that the Earth could be in a mini Ice Age by 2030. A new model of the Sun’s solar cycle shows solar activity will fall by 60% during the 2030s, creating freezing conditions not seen since 1645.

2015–Mexican singer-songwriter, Joan Sebastian, dies of bone cancer at his ranch in Cruz de la Sierra, Teacalco, Guerrero, Mexico, at age 64. At the time of his death, he had two #1 albums on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart and seven “Top Ten” songs on the Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States. Druing his career, he wrote over 1,000 songs, including compositions for Vicente Fernández, Lucero, Pepe Aguilar, and Rocío Dúrcal. His music is a mixture of Latin pop, ranchera, and grupera music.

2016–Theresa May succeeds David Cameron, and becoming the second female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

2016–In Brooklyn, New York, 33 people are treated for a possible K2 overdose. K2 is one of the illegal designer drugs that are chemically different from the chemicals in cannabis, but are sold with claims that they give the effects of cannabis.

2016–Severe turbulence experienced by a Southwest Airlines Flight 1265 from Chicago, Illinois, to Austin, Texas, forces the plane to be diverted to Kansas City. The turbulence is so severe that some passengers vomit and others pass out.

2016–Coleen of Orlando, Florida, accidentally steps off the edge of the Grand Canyon, plummeting hundreds of feet to her death. Park rangers find her body about 400 feet from where she had been standing.

2016–Film director, Héctor Babenco, die of cancer in São Paulo, Brazil, at age 70. His films include Kiss of the Spider Woman, Ironweed,At Play in the Fields of the Lord, Foolish Heart, and Words with Gods.

2017–The United States charges 412 people in health fraud schemes worth $1.3 billion. Attorney General, Jeff Sessions, calls it the “largest health care fraud takedown operation in American history.”

2017–Guatemala's Volcan de Fuego (Volcano of Fire) becomes active, shooting ash 20,000 feet into the sky and putting nearby communities on standby for evacuation. Fuego has erupted more than 60 times since 1524, making it Central America's most active volcano.

2017–Supercentenarian, Marie Josephine Gaudette, dies at age 115 (and 110 days). A nun known as Mother Cecilia, she lived in an Italian convent from 1958 until her death. She was considered "the world's oldest nun."

2017–Fresh Kid Ice, of 2 Live Crew, dies at age 53. He is noted for being the first rapper of Asian decent and the only 2 Live Crew member to appear on all their albums.

2017–Prominent Chinese dissident and Nobel Peace Prize winner, Liu Xiaobo, dies of cancer in Shenyang, Liaoning, China, at age 61. On December 25, 2009, Liu was sentenced to 11 years imprisonment and two years deprivation of political rights by the Beijing No. 2 Intermediate Court, on charges of "inciting subversion of state power." On June 26, 2017, he was granted medical parole, after being diagnosed with terminal liver cancer in late May 2017.

2018–Pakistan, Iran, China, and Russia agree on joint efforts against the Islamic State group in Afghanistan, in an effort to ensure peace and eliminate terrorism from the region.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Ruizong of Tang; Pope Clement X; Jean-Paul Marat; Buckingham Palace circa 1837; Mickey “Toy Bulldog” Walker; Bob Crane; Paul Prudhomme; Louis Prima and Keeley Smith; John F. Kennedy wins the Democratic Presidential Nomination in 1960; Seretse Khama; Chas Chandler; Sage Stallone; and Joan Sebastian.

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