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1943–Singer, Mick Jagger, is born Michael Philip Jagger in Dartford, Kent, England. He teamed with Brian Jones, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, and Charlie Watts in 1963 to create one of the most famous rock and roll bands in history, The Rolling Stones. The band was highly influenced by the American R&B records of the day, and they blended that sound perfectly with the emerging British rock. Because of the “good boy” image that The Beatles had developed, they decided to become the “bad boys” of rock and roll, and the legacy of The Rolling Stones began. The band, which took its name from a Muddy Waters song, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989. The Stones did not receive a Grammy Award until 1986, when they were presented with a Lifetime Achievement Grammy. For over four decades, with only minor personnel changes, the group has remained one of the biggest touring rock bands of all time.



342–Emperor Cheng of Jin dies.

432–Pope Celestine I dies.

811–Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I is killed and his heir, Staurakios, is seriously wounded in the Battle of Pliska.

1309–Henry VII is recognized King of the Romans by Pope Clement V.

1380–Emperor Komyo of Japan dies in a monastery in Kyoto, Japan, at age 58.

1471–Pope Paul II dies of a heart attack in Rome, Papal States, Italy, at age 54.

1509–Emperor Krishnadevaraya ascends to the throne, marking the beginning of the regeneration of the Vijayanagara Empire.

1564–Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, dies in Vienna, Austria, at age 61.

1581–The northern Low Countries declare their independence from the Spanish king, Philip II.

1612–Murad IV, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, is born in Constantinople.

1678–Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, is born in Vienna, Austria.

1739–Politician, George Clinton, is born. He was the fourth Vice President of the United States.

1745–The first recorded women's cricket match takes place near Guildford, England.

1758–In the French and Indian War, tThe Siege of Louisbourg ends with British forces defeating the French and taking control of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

1775–The office that would later become the United States Post Office Department is established by the Second Continental Congress.

1788–New York becomes the 11th state of the United States of America. New York City, one of the most famous cities in the world, was once the capital of the Empire State, but that changed in 1796, when Albany, once called Fort Orange, became the capital.

1801–Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria dies at Hetzendorf Palace, Vienna, Lower Austria, Holy Roman Empire, at age 44.

1803–The Surrey Iron Railway, the world's first public railway, opens in south London, England.

1822–José de San Martín arrives in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to meet with Simón Bolívar.

1837–Philologist and lexicographer, Sir James Murray, dies of pleurisy in Oxford, England, at age 78. At the time of his death, he had completed half of the Oxford English Dictionary, which was 12 volumes, with 414,825 words defined, and 1,827,306 citations illustrating their meanings.

1846–Frontier scout, actor, and cowboy, John Baker Omohundro, is born in Pleasure Hill, Virginia. Critics described Omohundro as physically impressive and magnetic in personality. As “Texas Jack” he was the first performer to introduce roping acts to the American stage. In 1994, he was inducted into the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in the Hall of Great Western Performers.

1847–Liberia declares its independence.

1856–Playwright, George Bernard Shaw, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He devoted many years to becoming a novelist, and was a great failure. Finally, he turned to writing plays, where he saw much success. All told, Shaw wrote over 60 plays, including Major Barbara, Pygmalion, and Saint Joan.

1861–In the American Civil War, George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.

1863–Sam Houston, the first President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 and 1841-1844), dies of pneumonia in Huntsville, Texas, at age 70.

1867–King Otto of Greece dies.

1875–Psychiatrist, Carl Gustav Jung, is born in Kesswil, Switzerland. He collaborated with Freud (from 1907-1913), and then went his own way, founding the school of “Analytical Psychology.” He gave psychology the terms complex, collective unconscious, extrovert-introvert, archetype, and individuation.

1880–Politician, Volodymyr Vynnychenko, is born. He was the first Prime Minister of Ukrainian People's Republic.

1882–Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera Parsifal is held at Bayreuth in northern Bavaria, Germany.

1882–The Republic of Stellaland is founded in Southern Africa.

1887–The publication of the Unua Libro, brings forth the founding the Esperanto movement.

1890–The Revolución del Parque takes place in Buenos Aires, Argentina, forcing President Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman's resignation.

1891–France annexes Tahiti.

1893–Artist, George Grosz, is born in Berlin, Germany. He founded the Berlin wing of the Dada movement. The Nazis were outraged by his drawings, and they drove him out in 1933.

1894–Writer and mystic, Aldous (Leonard) Huxley, is born in Godalming, Surrey, England. He was the author of Brave New World and Point Counter Point.

1895–Comedienne and actress, Gracie Allen, is born. She was married to comedian, George Burns.

1897–In the Anglo-Afghan War, the Pashtun fakir Saidullah leads an army of more than 10,000 to begin a siege of the British garrison in the Malakand Agency of the North West Frontier Province of India.

1897–Writer, Paul Gallico, is born.

1908–The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is founded within the Department of Justice. In 1924, Justice Department lawyer, J. Edgar Hoover, became director of the bureau, and ran it for 48 years. After that, the U.S. Congress limited the term of any FBI director to 10 years.

1909–Actress, Vivian Vance, is born Vivian Roberta Jones in Cherryvale, Kansas. She is best known for the role of Ethel Mertz on the TV sitcom I Love Lucy. She was also seen on the TV shows The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, The Red Skelton Show, The Lucy Show, Here’s Lucy, and Rhoda. She appeared in the films Take a Chance, The Secret Fury, The Blue Veil, and The Great Race.

1914–Serbia and Bulgaria interrupt their diplomatic relationship.

1915–Philologist and lexicographer, Sir James Murray, dies of pleurisy in Oxford, England, at age 78. On April 26, 1878, Murray was invited to Oxford to meet the Delegates of the Oxford University Press, to see about taking on the job of editor of a new dictionary of the English language. He started the job on March 1, 1879. It was expected to take 10 years to complete, being 7,000 pages long, in four volumes. When the final results were published in 1928, it was 12 volumes, with 414,825 words defined, and 1,827,306 citations illustrating their meanings. By the time of his death, half of The Oxford English Dictionary was prepared by Murray himself.

1918–Actress, Marjorie Lord, is born Marjorie Wollenberg in San Francisco, California. She is best known for the role of Kathy "Clancy" Williams on the TV sitcom Make Room for Daddy. Her daughter is actress, Ann Archer.

1922–Film director, Blake Edwards, is born William Blake Crump in Tulsa, Oklahoma. His films include Mister Cory, The Perfect Furlough, Operation Petticoat, High Time, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Days of Wine and Roses, The Pink Panther, A Shot in the Dark, The Party, Wild Rovers, 10, S.O.B., Victor Victoria, That’s Life, and Blind Date. He was married to singer-actress, Julie Andrews.

1922–Actor, Jason Robards, is born Jason Nelson Robards, Jr. in Chicago, Illinois. He appeared in the films Tender is the Night, Long Day’s Journey into Night, A Thousand Clowns, A Big Hand for the Little Lady, Any Wednesday, The St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, Once Upon a Time in the West, Fools, Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, A Boy and His Dog, All the President’s Men, Julia, Comes a Horseman, Melvin and Howard, Max Dugan Returns, The Day After, Parenthood, Storyville, Philadelphia, A Thousand Acres, and Magnolia. His son is actor, Sam Robards. He was married to actress, Lauren Bacall.

1923–Actor, Biff Elliot, is born.

1925–Orator-statesman, William Jennings Bryan, dies in his sleep as the result of diabetes and fatigue in Dayton, Tennessee, at age 65. Bryan was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Bryan actively lobbied for state laws banning public schools from teaching evolution. His participation in the highly publicized 1925 Scopes Trial served as a capstone to his career, as he died five days after it ended.

1926–Actor, James Best, is born Jewel Franklin Guy in Powderly, Kentucky. One of the busiest actors in his six-decade career, he was seen in many TV shows including Hopalong Cassidy, Annie Oakley, The Gene Autry Show, The Lone Ranger, Zane Grey Theater, The Millionaire, Wanted Dead or Alive, Wagon Train, Bat Masterson, Have Gun Will Travel, The Andy Griffith Show, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Rifleman, The Twilight Zone, Rawhide, Death Valley Days, Ben Casey, Perry Mason, I Spy, The Mod Squad, and The Dukes of Hazzard. He appeared in the films Winchester ‘73, The Cimarron Kid, Francis Goes to West point, Seminole, Riders to the Stars, Forbidden Planet, The Rack, I Was a Teenage Werewolf, The Left Handed Gun, The Killer Shrews, Shock Corridor, Shenandoah, Sounder, Ode to Billy Joe, The End, and Hooper.

1926–Politician and lawyer, Robert Todd Lincoln, dies. He was the 35th United States Secretary of War. His father was President Abraham Lincoln.

1928–Film director, Stanley Kubrick, is born in the Bronx, New York. His films include The Killing, Paths of Glory, Spartacus, Lolita, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, 2001: A Space Odyssey, A Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, and Eyes Wide Shut.

1929–Talent mamager, Joe Jackson, father of the musical Jackson family, is born.

1932–Businessman, Fred Duesenberg, dies of pleural pneumonia in Jennerstown, Pennsylvania, at age 55. He was a pioneer automobile designer and manufacturer who co-founded the Duesenberg Automobile & Motors Company.

1936–King Edward VIII, in one of his few official duties before he abdicates the throne, officially unveils the Canadian National Vimy Memorial.

1936–The Axis powers decide to intervene in the Spanish Civil War.

1938–Singer, Bobby Hebb, is born Robert Von Hebb in Nashville, Tennessee. He is best known for his 1966 hit Sunny.

1940–Singer, Dobie Gray, is born Lawrence Darrow Brown in Simonton, Texas. He had big hits with The In Crowd and Drift Away.

1940–Educator and secretary, Mary Jo Kopechne, is born.

1941–In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.

1941–Singer, Darlene Love, is born in Los Angeles, California.

1941–Singer, Brenton Wood, is born.

1943–Singer, Mick Jagger, is born Michael Philip Jagger in Dartford, Kent, England. He teamed with Brian Jones, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, and Charlie Watts in 1963 to create one of the most famous rock and roll bands in history, The Rolling Stones. The band was highly influenced by the American R&B records of the day, and they blended that sound perfectly with the emerging British rock. Because of the “good boy” image that The Beatles had developed, they decided to become the “bad boys” of rock and roll, and the legacy of The Rolling Stones began. The band, which took its name from a Muddy Waters song, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989. The Stones did not receive a Grammy Award until 1986, when they were presented with a Lifetime Achievement Grammy. For over four decades, with only minor personnel changes, the group has remained one of the biggest touring rock bands of all time.

1944–The Soviet Army enters Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, capturing it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jews survive out of 160,000 living in Lviv prior to occupation.

1944–Kiel Martin, is born.

1945–The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom general election of July 5th by a landslide. Winston Churchill resigns as Britain's Prime Minister.

1945–The U.S. Navy cruiser, USS Indianapolis, arrives at Tinian, with parts of the warhead for the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

1945–HMS Vestal is the last British Royal Navy ship to be sunk in World War II.

1945–Actress, Helen Mirren, is born in England. She appeared in the films, O Lucky Man!, Adam’s Woman, and The Calendar Girls.

1946–Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport in Hawaii.

1947–President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), United States Department of Defense, United States Air Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States National Security Council.

1948–President Harry S. Truman signs Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military of the United States.

1949–Roger Taylor, drummer for Queen, is born in England.

1950–Actress, Susan George, is born in England.

1951–Walt Disney's 13th animated film, Alice in Wonderland, premieres in London, England.

1952–King Farouk of Egypt abdicates in favor of his son, Fuad.

1952–Eva Perón dies of cervical cancer in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at age 33. She was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón, and served as the 25th First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death. She has become a part of international popular culture, most famously as the subject of the musical Evita in 1976.

1953–Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, thus beginning the Cuban Revolution.

1953–Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek Raid.

1956–Following the World Bank's refusal to fund the building the Aswan Dam, Egyptian leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalizes the Suez Canal, sparking international condemnation.

1956–Figure skater, Dorothy Hamill, is born.

1957–Carlos Castillo Armas, dictator of Guatemala, is assassinated.

1958–Explorer 4 is launched. It is a cylindrically shaped satellite instrumented to make the first detailed measurements of charged particles (protons and electrons) trapped in the terrestrial radiation belts. The U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency had initially planned two satellites for the purposes of studying the Van Allen radiation belts and the effects of nuclear explosions upon these belts (and the Earth's magnetosphere in general). However, Explorer 4 was the only such satellite launched, as the other (Explorer 5) suffered launch failure.

1959–Actor, Kevin Spacey, is born.

1963–Syncom 2, the world's first geosynchronous satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta B booster.

1963–An earthquake in Skopje, Yugoslavia (present-day Macedonia), kills 1,100 people.

1963–The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development votes to admit Japan.

1964–Actress, Sandra Bullock, is born.

1965–Full independence is granted to the Maldives.

1965–Actress, Cynthia Geary, is born.

1965–Actor, Jeremy Piven, is born.

1968–John Lennon goes to Paul McCartney's house to assist him in completing his song Hey Jude, which has been selected as The Beatles' next single. At some point during the work session, John encourages Paul to keep the lyric, “the movement you need is on your shoulder,” telling him: “It’s one of the best lines of the song, I know what you mean by it.”

1968–Decca pulls the Rolling Stones' Beggars Banquet LP from its release schedule, citing problems with the cover. The design features a graffiti-covered toilet. It's one of the first disagreements between the band and the label, with Mick Jagger angrily pointing out that Decca released Tom Jones' A-tom-ic Jones with a nuclear explosion printed on its jacket sleeve.

1969–Elvis Presley opens his first live engagement in nearly eight years in Las Vegas, Nevada.

1971–Apollo 15 is launched on the first Apollo "J-Mission," with first use of a Lunar Roving Vehicle.

1971–Nicolette Milnes-Walker completes sailing single-handedly non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, becoming the first woman to successfully do so.

1971–Photographer, Diane Arbus, dies from suicide by ingesting barbiturates and slashing her wrists with a razor in New York, New York, at age 48. She was noted for photographs of "deviant, marginal, and minority people (dwarfs, giants, transgender people, nudists, circus performers) or of people whose normality seems ugly or surreal."

1973–Actress, Kate Beckinsale, is born Kathrin Romary Beckinsale in Finsbury Park, London, England. She began her acting career while still at Oxford University, debuting in Much Ado About Nothing. She appeared in the films Cold Comfort Farm, Haunted, Alice Through the Looking Glass, Brokedown Palace, Pearl Harbor, Serendipity, Laurel Canyon, and The Aviator.

1974–Konstantinos Karamanlis, Prime Minister of Greece, forms the country's first civil government after seven years of military rule.

1974–The first Beatles convention, called “Strawberry Fields Forever,” is held in Boston, Massachusetts.

1977–The National Assembly of Quebec, Canada, imposes the use of French as the official language of the provincial government.

1977–Elvis Costello is arrested for playing outside the Hilton Hotel in London, England. The new wave songwriter was hoping to interest record executives into giving him an American record deal, as a CBS Records conference was being held inside. He was fined £5, but CBS invited him to a proper audition.

1984–Purple Rain, the first film from rock singer, Prince, premieres in Hollywood, California.

1984–George H. Gallup, originator of the Gallup Poll, dies of a heart attack at his summer home in Tschingel, Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, at age 82.

1989–A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student,, Robert T. Morris, Jr., for releasing the Morris worm. He is the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

1990–The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President George H.W. Bush.

1992–Singer, Mary Wells, dies of throat cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 49. Her biggest hit was My Guy. She also recorded Two Lovers and You Beat Me to the Punch.

1995–Politician, George W. Romney, dies. He was the 43rd Governor of Michigan. His son is politician, Mitt Romney.

1999–Phaedon Gizikis, President of Greece, dies.

1999–Chico Ryan, of Sha Na Na, dies of undisclosed causes in Arlington, Massachusetts, at age 50.

2004–Chemist, William A. Mitchell, dies. He created Pop Rocks and Cool Whip.

2005–Mumbai, India receives 39.17 inches of rain within 24 hours, resulting in floods killing over 5,000 people.

2005–The launch of Discovery, NASA's first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003, takes place.

2007–Shambo, a black cow in Wales that had been adopted by the local Hindu community, is slaughtered due to a bovine tuberculosis infection, causing widespread controversy.

2008–Fifty-six people are killed and over 200 others are injured in 21 bomb blasts in the Ahmedabad bombing in India.

2009–Dancer and choreographer, Merce Cunningham, dies in New York, New York, at age 90. As a teacher and leader of the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, he had a profound influence on modern dance.

2013–Singer-songwriter, JJ Cale, dies of a heart attack in La Jolla, California, at age 74. The vocalist, guitarist, and keyboardist, is best known for writing some of Eric Clapton's most notable hits, including After Midnight and Cocaine. He is considered to be one of the originators of the Tulsa Sound, a loose genre drawing on blues, rockabilly, country, and jazz.

2015–Bobbi Kristina Brown, daughter of Whitney Houston and Bobby Brown, dies.

2016–Solar Impulse 2 becomes the first solar-powered aircraft to travel around the world without fuel after it returns to Abu Dhabi.

2016–At age 81, Dr. Neil Clark Warren, the wise old matchmaker of the eHarmony online dating service, is stepping down as CEO, and will no longer be seen in the company’s commercials.

2016–Two terrorists armed with knives take a priest, two nuns and two parishioners hostage in a church near Rouen, in the French region of Normandy. French police kill the terrorists and find that the 86-year-old priest’s throat had been slit. French President François Hollande vows to wage war against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) "by every means."

2016–At least 19 people are killed and 26 others are injured in a knife attack at a care centre for disabled people in the city of Sagamihara, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

2016–Television psychic, Miss Cleo, dies of cancer in Palm Beach County, Florida, at age 53. She was a spokeswoman for the pay-per-call Psychic Readers Network from 1997 to 2003.

2016–Candy magnate, Forrest Mars, Jr., dies of a heart attack in Seattle, Washington, at age 84. He was the eldest son of Audrey Ruth (Meyer) and Forrest Mars Sr., and the grandson of Frank C. Mars, the founder of the candy company Mars, Incorporated.


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