622The beginning of the Islamic calendar takes place.
716Emperor Ruizong of Tang dies in Baifu Hall, China, at age 54. He was the fifth and ninth Emperor of Tang Dynasty.
1054Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. This is considered the start of the East-West Schism.
1194Italian nun and Saint, Clare of Assisi, is born.
1212After Pope Innocent III calls European knights to a crusade, forces of Kings Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon, and Afonso II of Portugal defeat those of the Berber Muslim leader Almohad, marking a significant turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.
1216Pope Innocent III dies.
1324Emperor Go-Uda of Japan dies.
1342Charles I of Hungary dies.
1377The coronation of Richard II of England is held.
1439Kissing is outlawed by the English Parliament to halt the spread of pestilence and disease.
1487Charlotte, Queen of Cyprus, dies in Rome, Italy, at age 43.
1557Anne of Cleves dies.
1661The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.
1683Manchu Qing dynasty naval forces, under traitorous commander Shi Lang, defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu near the Pescadores Islands.
1747Italian painter, Giuseppe Crespi, dies.
1769Father Junípero Serra founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego, California.
1790The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after signature of the Residence Act.
1809The city of La Paz, in present-day Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution. It forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.
1821Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian Science movement, is born Mary Morse Baker in Bow, New Hampshire. She wrote the movement's textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, and founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 1879. Eddy also founded the Christian Science Publishing Society, which continues to publish a number of periodicals, including The Christian Science Monitor (founded in 1908). Currently, there are 1,700 Christian Science churches in 76 countries.
1831Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of Persia, is born Nasser al-Din Shah in Tehran, Persia. He had sovereign power for close to 50 years, and was the first Iranian monarch to visit Europe.
1849Antonio María Claret y Clará founds the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (known as the Claretians in Vic) in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
1861At the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25-mile march into Virginia, for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the Civil War.
1882Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of Abraham Lincoln, dies in Springfield, Illinois, at age 63. She was the 17th First Lady of the United States.
1887Baseball player and manager, Shoeless Joe Jackson, is born Joseph Jefferson Jackson in Pickens County, South Carolina. He was an outfielder who played Major League Baseball in the early part of the 20th century. He is remembered for his performance on the field and for his alleged association with the Black Sox Scandal, in which members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox participated in a conspiracy to fix the World Series. As a result , he was banned from playing after the 1920 season.
1896Norwegian politician, Trygve Lie, is born. He was the first Secretary-General of the United Nations.
1907Popcorn King, Orville Redenbacher, is born.
1907Actress, Barbara Stanwyck, is born Ruby Catherine Stevens in Brooklyn, New York. Stanwyck had a 60-year career as a consummate and versatile actress, making 85 films, before turning to television. She is known for the role of Victoria Barkley on the TV Western series The Big Valley. She appeared in the films Stella Dallas, Golden Boy, Remember the Night, The Lady Eve, Meet John Doe, Ball of Fire, Double Indemnity, Christmas in Connecticut, The Strange Love of Marther Ivers, Sorry, Wrong Number, Witness to Murder, Executive Suite, Cattle Queen of Montana, The Violent Men, Walk on the Wild Side, and Roustabout.
1909Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son, Ahmad Shah Qajar.
1910John Robertson Duigan makes the first flight of the Duigan pusher biplane, the first aircraft built in Australia.
1911Actress, Ginger Rogers, is born Virginia Katherine McMath in Independence, Missouri. She appeared in the films 42nd Street, Flying Down to Rio, The Gay Divorcee, Top Hat, Swing Time, Stage Door, Bachelor Mother, Kitty Foyle, The Barkleys of Broadway, Were Not Married!, and Teenage Rebel. She was married to actor, Lew Ayers
1911Actor and opera singer, Sonny Tufts, is born Bowen Charlton Tufts III in Boston, Massachusetts. He appeared in the films So Proudly We Hail, The Virginian, Cross My Heart, Glory at Sea, Cat-Women of the Moon, and The Seven Year Itch.
1915The First Order of the Arrow ceremony takes place and the Order of the Arrow is founded.
1915Actor, Barnard Hughes, is born Bernard Aloysius Kiernan Hughes in Bedford Hills, New York. Hughes changed the "e" in his first name to an "a" to help his acting career on the advice of a numerologist. He appeared in the films The Young Doctors, Hamlet, Midnight Cowboy, Wheres Poppa, Cold Turkey, The Hospital, Oh, God!, First Monday in October, Tron, Best Friend, The Lost Boys, and Doc Hollywood.
1919Politician, Choi Kyu-hah, is born. He was the 4th President of South Korea.
1924Model and actress, Bess Myerson, is born in the Bronx, New York. She was crowned Miss America in 1945. Myerson was seen frequently on television during the 1950s and 1960s, and was a regular on the celebrity quiz show I've Got a Secret. She became a City Commissioner in 1969, beginning a prominent New York political career.
1925Vibraphone player and composer, Cal Tjader, is born.
1927Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal. He is defeated by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history.
1929Serial killer, Charles Ray Hatcher, is born.
1931Emperor Haile Selassie signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.
1935The first automatic parking meters in the U.S. are installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
1937Director and screenwriter, John Daly, is born in England.
1938Tony Jackson, lead singer of The Searchers, is born in Dingle, Liverpool, England.
1940Adolf Hitler orders the preparations to begin on the invasion of England, known as Operation Sea Lion.
1941Singer-songwriter, Desmond Dekker, is born in Jamaica.
1942The government of Vichy, France, orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris, before deportation to Auschwitz.
1945The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco, California, with parts for the atomic bomb "Little Boy" bound for Tinian Island.
1945The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
1948Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the Arab-Israeli War.
1948The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane.
1948Actor, Ruben Blades, is born in Panama City, Panama.
1949Ray Major, of Mott the Hoople, is born.
1950American POWs are massacred by the North Korean Army in the ChaplainMedic massacre.
1951King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates in favor of his son, Baudouin I of Belgium.
1951The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger is published for the first time by Little, Brown and Company.
1952Drummer Stewart Copeland, of The Police, is born in Alexandria, Egypt.
1956The Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus holds its last show under the canvas tent. Future shows will take place in arenas.
1960The USS George Washington, a modified Skipjack class submarine, successfully test fires the first ballistic missile while submerged.
1960Writer, John P. Marquand, dies.
1963Actress, Phoebe Cates, is born.
1964The trade paper, Film Daily, gives The Beatles movie, A Hard Day's Night, horrible reviews.
1965The Mont Blanc Tunnel opens, linking France and Italy.
1965South Vietnamese Colonel Pham Ngoc Thao, a formerly undetected communist spy and double agent, is hunted down and killed by unknown individuals after being sentenced to death in absentia for an attempted coup against Nguyen Khánh.
1966Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker, form the band Cream. The band would go on to become regarded as rock's first supergroup, as well as one of the most popular and influential bands of the 1960s.
1967Comedian-actor, Will Ferrell, is born.
1968Philosopher and entreprenuer, Larry Sanger, is born. He co-founded Wikipedia and Citizendium.
1969Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida.
1969Actress, Rain Pryor, is born. Her father is comedian, Richard Pryor.
1971Actor, Corey Feldman, is born.
1979Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.
1980Former actor, Ronald Reagan, receives the Republican Presidential Nomination at the partys convention in Detroit, Michigan.
1980No Nukes, a documentary film on the benefit concerts of the same name starring Bruce Springsteen and James Taylor, premieres in New York.
1981Mahathir Mohamad becomes Malaysia's fourth Prime Minister.
1981Singer, Harry Chapin, dies of a heart attack during a car crash while on his way to a benefit concert, at age 38. He is best known for his folk rock songs Taxi and Cat's in the Cradle.
1982Politician, Charles Robberts Swart, dies in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State Province, South Africa, at age 87. He was the first State President of the Republic of South Africa.
1983A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, killing 20 people.
1986Columbia Records announces that after 28 years with the label, the contract of country star Johnny Cash will not be renewed. Cash recorded 13 hits on the pop music charts from 1956 to 1976; all but four on Columbia. The others were on Sam Phillips Memphis-based label, Sun Records. Cashs biggest hit for Columbia was A Boy Named Sue in 1969.
1990The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.
1990A 7.8 earthquake in the Philippines kills over 1,600 people.
1991Ukraine celebrates its first Independence Day.
1991The French government makes jazz trumpeter, Miles Davis, a Knight of the Legion of Honor.
1991American painter and printmaker, Robert Motherwell, dies in Provincetown, Massachusetts, at age 76. Motherwell developed his creative process through "automatism" or automatic drawings, a tool employed by the Surrealists.
1994Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts will continue until July 22nd.
1996John Panozzo, drummer for the rock band Styx, dies.
1999John F. Kennedy, Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha's Vineyard. His wife, Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy, and sister-in-law, Lauren Bessette, are also killed.
2004Millennium Park, considered the first and most ambitious early 21st-century architectural project in Chicago, Illinois, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.
2007A 6.8 earthquake and 6.6 aftershock occur off the Niigata coast of Japan. killing eight people, injuring at least 800 others, and damaging a nuclear power plant.
2008In Gansu Province, China, 16 infants who had been fed on tainted milk powder, are diagnosed with kidney stones. A total of 300,000 infants are affected.
2008Singer, Jo Stafford, dies of congestive heart failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 90. She was a pop music singer whose career spanned five decades, from the late 1930s to the early 1980s. Her hits include Long Ago (and Far Away), It Could Happen to You, Candy, On the Sunny Side of the Street, The Things We Did Last Summer, The Best Things in Life Are Free, Better Luck Next Time, and In the Cool Cool Cool of the Evening.
2010Actor, James Gammon, dies of liver cancer in Costa Mesa, California, at age 70. He is best known as Coach Lou Brown in the films Major League and Major League II. He appeared in the films Cool Hand Luke, Journey to Shiloh, A Man Called Horse, Macon County Line, The Greatest, Urban Cowboy, Any Which Way You Can, Vision Quest, Silverado, Made in Heaven, Ironweed, The Milagro Beanfield War, Leaving Normal, CrissCross, Wyatt Earp, Wild Bill, and Cold Mountain.
2012Director, producer, and screenwriter, William Asher, dies from complications of Alzheimer's disease in Palm Desert, California, at age 90. He was one of the most prolific early television directors, producing or directing over two dozen series, including I Love Lucy, The Dinah Shore Show, Our Miss Brooks, Make Room for Daddy, The Donna Reed Show, The Twilight Zone, The Patty Duke Show, Bewitched, Gidget, Alice, and The Dukes of Hazzard.
2012Jon Lord, keyboard player for Deep Purple, dies of pancreatic cancer in London, England, at age 71. He was a Hammond organ player known for his pioneering work in fusing rock with classical or baroque forms.
2012Country singer, Kitty Wells, dies from complications following a stroke at age 92. Known as the "Queen of Country Music," she recorded 50 albums and had 25 Top 10 country hits. In 1952, Wells became the first solo female artist to have a #1 country hit with her song It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels.
2013As many as 27 children die and 25 others are hospitalized after eating lunch served at their school in eastern India.
2014Blues guitarist, Johnny Winter, dies of emphysema in St. Gallen, Switzerland, at age 70. Among his hit albums is 1973's Still Alive and Well.
2015Four U.S. Marines and one gunman die in a shooting spree targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
2016An attempted coup d'etat takes place in Turkey. The Turkish military claims to have gained control of the government, with gunfire reported on the streets of Ankara. Prime Minister Binali Yildirmn calls for calm over what he states is an "illegal attempt" by sections of the Turkish military to claim power. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan urges supporters to oppose the coup by taking to the streets, then later declares that the coup is over with more than 1,500 members of the Turkish military in detention. At least 194 people are killed during the period of unrest.
2016The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration issues an order that prohibits all airlines from flying from Turkey to the U.S. and bans U.S. commercial and private aircraft from flying to Turkey.
2016Scientists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) announce that they have made an object disappear by using a composite material with nano-size particles that can enhance specific properties on the object's surface. The researchers demonstrated for the first time a cloaking device that allows curved surfaces to appear flat to electromagnetic waves. It's being described as an illusion to potentially make things invisible.
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