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1967–Riots begin in Detroit, Michigan. The resulting violence will leave 43 people dead, 2,000 people injured, and 5,000 people homeless. Over 4,700 paratroopers and 8,000 National Guardsmen will be called out to contain the riots.

811–Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I plunders the Bulgarian capital of Pliska and captures Khan Krum's treasury.

997–Samanid Emir Nuh II dies.

1227–Religious leader, Qiu Chuji, dies. He founded Dragon Gate Taoism.

1298–King Thoros III of Armenia dies by strangulation in Bardzrberd by Oshin, Marshal of Armenia, at age 27.

1301–Otto, Duke of Austria, is born in Vienna, Austria. He ruled jointly with his elder brother, Duke Albert II.

1373–Mystic and Saint, Bridget of Sweden, dies. She founded the Bridgettine Order.

1503–Anne of Bohemia and Hungary is born.

1632–Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe, France.

1645–Michael I of Russia (1613-1645) dies in Moscow, Russia, at age 49.

1649–Pope Clement XI is born Giovanni Francesco Albani in Rome, Papal States.

1757–Composer and harpsichordist, Domenico Scarlatti, dies in Madrid, Spain, at age 71. He composed over 500 keyboard sonatas, using new techniques and achieving brilliant effects.

1793–Roger Sherman, a Founding Father of America, dies in New Haven, Connecticut, at age 72. He served as the first Mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic. He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution.

1821–While the Mora Rebellion continues, Greeks capture Monemvasia Castle. Turkish troops and citizens are transferred to Minor Asia coasts.

1829–In the United States, William Austin Burt patents the typographer, a precursor to the typewriter.

1840–The Province of Canada is created by the Act of Union.

1846–Henry David Thoreau spends the night in jail for failing to pay $1 tax because he opposed the Mexican War.

1864–Politician, Apolinario Mabini, is born. He was the first Prime Minister of the Philippines.

1864–Politician, Apolinario Mabini, is born Apolinario Mabini y Maranan in Talaga, Captaincy General of the Philippines. He was the first Prime Minister of the Philippines.

1865–Occultist and mystic, Max Heindel, is born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark. He was deeply involved with the Elder Brothers of the Rosicrucian Order. In 1909, he founded The Rosicrucian Fellowship at Mount Ecclesia, in Oceanside, California. Among his books are The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception, Teachings of an Initiate, Simplified Scientific Astrology, and Occult Principles of Health and Healing.

1875–Businessman, Isaac Singer, dies in Paignton, Devon, England, at age 63. He founded the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Many others had patented sewing machines before Singer, but his success was based on the practicality of his machine, the ease with which it could be adapted to home use, and its availability on an installment payment basis.

1881–The Boundary Treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina is signed in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1885–Politician and general, Ulysses S. Grant, dies of throat cancer in Wilton, New York, at age 63. He was the 18th President of the United States.

1885–Businessman and diplomat, Georges V. Matchabelli, is born in Tbilisi, Georgia, Russian Empire. He founded the Prince Matchabelli Perfume Company.

1888–Detective writer, Raymond (Thornton) Chandler, is born in Chicago, Illinois. From the age of 44 to his death, he finished seven novels and numerous screenplays. He is considered to be one of the creators of the hard-boiled detective fiction. His first novel, The Big Sleep, was published in 1939. Some of Chandler's novels are considered important literary works, and three are often considered masterpieces: Farewell, My Lovely, The Little Sister, and The Long Goodbye.

1891–Harry Cohn, CEO and production director of Columbia Pictures, is born in New York, New York. Cohn was known for his autocratic and intimidating management style. When he took over as Columbia's president, he remained production chief as well, thus concentrating enormous power in his hands. Cohn was known to scream and curse at actors and directors in his office all afternoon, and greet them cordially at a dinner party that evening. There is some suggestion that Cohn deliberately cultivated his reputation as a tyrant, either to motivate his employees, or simply because it increased his control of the studio. Cohn's brash, intimidating style has become Hollywood legend and was reportedly portrayed in various movies. The characters played by Broderick Crawford in All The King's Men and Born Yesterday (both Columbia pictures), are allegedly based on Cohn, as is Jack Woltz, a movie mogul who appears in The Godfather.

1894–Actor, Arthur Treacher, is born.

1903–The Ford Motor Company sells its first car.

1912–Actor, Michael Wilding, is born.

1914–Austria-Hungary issues a series of demands in an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, demanding Serbia to allow the Austrians to determine who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Serbia accepts all but one of those demands and Austria declares war on July 28th.

1918–Baseball player and sportscaster, Pee Wee Reese, is born Harold Peter Henry Reese in Ekron, Kentucky. He played in Major League Baseball as a shortstop for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers from 1940 to 1958. A 10-time All Star, Reese contributed to seven National League championships for the Dodgers, and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1984.

1921–The Communist Party of China (CPC) is established at the founding National Congress.

1923–Politician, Charles Dupuy, dies in Ille-sur-Têt, France, at age 71. He was the 60th Prime Minister of France.

1923–Actress, Constance Ford, is born in the Bronx, New York. She was cast in dozens of TV shows in the 1950s and 1960s, including General Electric Theater, Goodyear Playhouse, The Phil Silvers Show, Bat Masterson, Thriller, and Gunsmoke. She appeared in the films A Summer Place, Home from the Hill, Rome Adventure, All Fall Down, House of Women, The Caretakers, and 99 and 44/100% Dead.

1925–Politician, Tajuddin Ahmad, is born. He was the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

1925–Actress, Gloria (Mildred) DeHaven, is born in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films Modern Times, Susan and God, Two-Faced Woman, Step Lively, Summer Holiday, Scene of the Crime, Three Little Words, and Summer Stock. She was married to actor, John Payne.

1926–Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.

1927–The first station of the Indian Broadcasting Company goes on the air in Bombay, India.

1928–Astronomer, Vera Rubin, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She pioneered work on galaxy rotation rates, uncovering the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves. This phenomenon became known as the galaxy rotation problem. Attempts to explain the galaxy rotation problem led to the theory of dark matter.

1929–The Fascist government in Italy bans the use of foreign words.

1933–Television personality, Bert Convy, is born Bernard Whalen Convy in St. Louis, Missouri. He hosted the TV game shows Super Password, Tattletales, and Win, Lose, or Draw. He appeared in the films A Bucket of Blood, Susan Slade, Act One, Semi-Tough, Jennifer, Hero at Large, and The Cannonball Run.

1933–Architect, Richard Rogers, is born. He designed the Millennium Dome in London, England.

1934–Saxophonist, Steve Lacy, is born Steven Norman Lackritz in New York, New York. He is recognized as one of the important players of jazz soprano saxophone. Coming to prominence in the 1950s as a progressive dixieland musician, Lacy went on to a long and prolific career. He worked extensively in experimental jazz and to a lesser extent in free improvisation.

1936–In Catalonia, Spain, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia is founded through the merger of Socialist and Communist parties.

1936–Baseball player and sportscaster, Don Drysdale, is born Donald Scott Drysdale in Van Nuys, California. He played as a right-handed pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers for his entire career in Major League Baseball. Drysdale was also a good hitter for a pitcher. In 14 seasons, he had 218 hits, including 29 home runs, and was occasionally used as a pinch-hitter, once even during the World Series.

1938–Actor, Ronny Cox, is born.

1938–Convicted murderer, Charles (Voyde) Harrelson, is born in Huntsville, Texas. He assassinated John H. Wood, Jr., who was the first federal judge to be killed in the 20th century. He was the estranged father of actor, Woody Harrelson.

1939–Hatay State joins Turkey as Hatay Province.

1940–Radio commentator, Don Imus, is born.

1942–The Treblinka extermination camp is opened in a forest north-east of Warsaw, Poland. It was built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.

1942–During World War II, the German offensives Operation Edelweiss and Operation Braunschweig begin.

1942–Bulgarian poet and Communist leader, Nikola Vaptsarov, is executed by firing squad.

1942–Singer, Madeline Bell, is born.

1943–The Rayleigh bath chair murder occurs in Rayleigh, Essex, England.

1943–During World War II, the British destroyers HMS Eclipse and HMS Laforey sink the Italian submarine Ascianghi in the Mediterranean, after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland.

1943–Singer, Tony Joe White, is born.

1944–Dino Danelli, drummer for The Young Rascals, is born in Jersey City, New Jersey. The group’s biggest hits include Good Lovin', Groovin', It’s a Beautiful Morning, and People Got To Be Free.

1947–Rocker and teen idol, David Essex, is born David Cook in London, England. His biggest hit is the million-selling single Rock On. He also starred in the film That’ll Be The Day and its sequel, Stardust. Essex went on to have a successful music and stage career in Europe, far beyond his popularity in the 1970s.

1947–Jazz saxophonist, Gene Ammons, dies of cancer in Chicago, Illinois, at age 49. Musicians who played in his groups include Sonny Stitt, Donald Byrd, Jackie McLean, John Coltrane, Kenny Burrell, Mal Waldron, Art Farmer, and Duke Jordan.

1948–Film producer, D.W. Griffith, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Hollywood, California, at age 73. His body was discovered in the lobby at the Knickerbocker Hotel in Los Angeles, where he had been living alone. His work includes the silent film epics Birth of a Nation and Intolerance.

1952–The European Coal and Steel Community is established.

1952–General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement (formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the real power behind the coup) in overthrowing King Farouk of Egypt.

1955–Chess Records releases Maybellene, the first single by Chuck Berry.

1961–The Sandinista National Liberation Front is founded in Nicaragua.

1961–Actor, Woody Harrelson, is born.

1962–Telstar relays the first publicly transmitted, live trans-Atlantic television program, featuring Walter Cronkite.

1962–The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed.

1964–Rock drummer, Nick Menza, is born in Munich, West Germany. He is best known for his work in he heavy metal band, Megadeth, from 1989 to 1998, and again in 2004. His father was jazz musician, Don Menza.

1965–Slash, guitarist for Guns N' Roses, is born.

1966–The Frank Sinatra album, Strangers in the Night, reaches #1 on the pop music charts.

1966–Actor, Montgomery Clift, dies of a heart attack in New York, New York, at age 45. Along with Marlon Brando and James Dean, Clift was one of the original method actors in Hollywood and he was one of the first actors to be invited to study in the Actors Studio with Lee Strasberg and Elia Kazan. He appeared in the films Red River, The Heiress, The Big Lift, A Place in the Sun, I Confess, Terminal Station, From Here to Eternity, Raintree County, Lonelyhearts, The Young Lions, Suddenly Last Summer, Wild River, The Misfits, and Judgment at Nuremberg.

1967–Riots begin in Detroit, Michigan. The resulting violence will leave 43 people dead, 2,000 people injured, and 5,000 people homeless. Over 4,700 paratroopers and 8,000 National Guardsmen will be called out to contain the riots.

1967–Actor, Philip Seymour Hoffman, is born in Rochester, New York. He gained recognition for his supporting work throughout the 1990s and early 2000s in minor but seminal roles, in which he typically played losers or degenerates. He appeared in the films When a Man Loves a Woman, Nobody’s Fool, Twister, Boogie Nights, The Big Lebowski, Scent of a Woman, Flawless, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Almost Famous, Punch-Drunk Love, Capote, Doubt, and The Master.

1968–In Cleveland, Ohio, a violent shootout between a Black Militant organization and the Cleveland Police Department occurs. During the shootout, a riot begins and lasts for five days.

1968–The only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft happens when a Boeing 707 carrying 10 crew members and 38 passengers en route from Rome, to Lod, Israel, is taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

1969–Three Dog Night receives a gold record for the single One. It was the first of seven million-sellers for the pop-rock vocal group.

1970–Qaboos bin Said al Said becomes Sultan of Oman after overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur, initiating massive reforms, modernization programs, and end to a decade long civil war.

1971–Singer, Alison Krauss, is born.

1971–Actor, Van Heflin, dies.

1972–The United States launches Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite.

1972–Actor, director, and producer, Marlon Wayans, is born.

1973–Monica Lewinsky, subject of the Bill Clinton sex scandal, is born.

1973–Pilot and racecar driver, Eddie Rickenbacker, dies. He founded Rickenbacker Motors.

1974–The Greek military junta collapses, and former Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis is invited to lead the new government, beginning Greece's metapolitefsi era.

1980–Pham Tuan becomes the first Vietnamese citizen and the first Asian in space, when he flies aboard the Soyuz 37 mission as an Intercosmos Research Cosmonaut.

1980–Michelle Williams, of Destiny's Child, is born.

1980–Keith Godchaux, of The Grateful Dead, dies.

1982–The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1985 or 1986.

1982–Actor, Vic Morrow, dies of accidental decapitation in Indian Dunes, Ventura County, California, at age 53. In 1982, Morrow was cast in a feature role in Twilight Zone: The Movie, directed by John Landis. In the early morning hours of July 23rd, Morrow and two children, Myca Dinh Le (age seven) and Renee Shin-Yi Chen (age six), were filming on location. They were performing in a scene for a Vietnam sequence in which their characters attempt to escape from a pursuing U.S. Army helicopter in a deserted Vietnamese village. The helicopter was hovering at about 24 feet when pyrotechnic explosions caused it to crash on top of them, killing all three instantly. Morrow and Dinh were decapitated by the helicopter rotor. Chen was crushed by a helicopter strut. Landis and four other defendants, including pilot Dorsey Wingo, were ultimately acquitted of involuntary manslaughter after a nine-month trial.

1983–Thirteen Sri Lanka Army soldiers are killed after a deadly ambush by the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

1984–Vanessa Williams becomes the first Miss America to resign when she surrenders her crown after nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine.

1985–Orchestra leader, Kay Kyser, dies in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, at age 80. During the late 1930s and early 1940s, Kyser's band appeared in several motion pictures, usually as themselves, beginning with the successful That's Right You're Wrong, You'll Find Out, Playmates, and My Favorite Spy.

1986–Prince Andrew, Duke of York, marries Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey in London, England.

1987–The surviving Beatles sue EMI-Capitol, demanding $40 million in back royalties and the right to own their recordings.

1988–General Ne Win, effective ruler of Burma since 1962, resigns after pro-democracy protests.

1989–Ringo Starr begins his first solo tour of North America, with his All-Starr Band. The opening tour performance is at Starplex Amphitheatre, Dallas, Texas.

1991–In Merseyside, Liverpool, a plaque honoring Brian Epstein is unveiled at 12-14 Whitechapel in the city center. This is the location of the original NEMS record store, which is now the site of the Rumbelows domestic appliance chain. The plaque is part of the “Harp Beat Rock Plaques” series presented in Britain.

1992–A Vatican commission, led by Joseph Ratzinger, establishes that limiting certain rights of homosexual people and non-married couples is not equivalent to discrimination on grounds of race or gender.

1992–Abkhazia declares independence from Georgia.

1995–Comet Hale-Bopp is discovered. It will become visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

1997–Digital Equipment Corporation files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel.

1999–ANA Flight 61 is hijacked in by Yuji Nishizawa Tokyo, Japan.

1999–King Hassan II of Morocco dies, and Mohammed VI ascends to the throne.

2002–Actor, Leo McKern, dies from diabetes and other health problems in Bath, Somerset, England, at age 82. He appeared in the films The Adventures of Robin Hood, X the Unknown, A Tale of Two Cities, The Mouse That Roared, The Running Jumping & Standing Still Film, Jazz Boat, The Day the Earth Caught Fire, Doctor in Distress, The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders, Help!, Alice in Wonderland, A Man for All Seasons, Ryan’s Daughter, The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes' Smarter Brother, The Omen, The Blue Lagoon, The French Lieutenant’s Woman, and Ladyhawke.

2005–Three bombs explode in the Naama Bay area of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, killing 88 people.

2007–Afghan King, Mohammed Zahir Shah, dies.

2011–Singer, Amy Winehouse, dies.

2012–Astronaut, Sally Ride, dies of pancreatic cancer in La Jolla, California, at age 61. She was the first American woman to fly in space.

2013–Super-centenarian, Jokichi Ikarashi, dies of pneumonia in Sanjo, Niigata, Japan, at age 111 (and 178 days). He had stated his desire to become a centenarian for many years, and he joked that he "forgot to die" on his 110th birthday. Ikarashi had four children, 11 grandchildren, 22 great-grandchildren, and one great-great grandchild.

2015–The black wool double-breasted suit jacket Ringo Starr wore in the 1965 Beatles movie Help! sells at the online Marvels of Modern Music auction for $46,500. Other items sold in the auction include a Hamer guitar custom-made in Connecticut for Johnny Ramone for $50,000; a signed Jimi Hendrix Experience album cover for $31,000; a signed Janis Joplin photograph for $19,000; and a contract signed by Jim Morrison to appear on American Bandstand for $12,000.

2016–California Governor Jerry Brown rejects a parole for Leslie van Houten, a murderer and cult follower of Charles Manson.

2016–Emails hacked by Russian government hackers and released by Wikileaks, show that the Democratic National Committee, led by Debbie Wasserman Schultz, supported the candidacy of Hillary Clinton over Bernie Sanders.

2016–WikiLeaks reveals that singer, Ariana Grande, was prevented from perfoming at the White House because of the July 2015 doughnut-licking incident where she was videotaped saying she hates America: she was also shown licking donuts displayed on a counter and then putting them back for innocent people to later purchase.

2016–Up to 30 people are arrested at a Guns N' Roses concert in East Rutherford, New Jersey. Offences include solicitation, disorderly conduct, harassment, criminal trespass, and assaulting a police officer.

2017–Nine male immigrants are found dead inside a tractor-trailer parked outside a Walmart store in San Antonio, Texas, in what authorities call a case of "ruthless" human trafficking. Thirty people, many in critical condition and suffering from heat stroke and exhaustion, were removed from the non-air conditioned trailer that also lacked a water supply.


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