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1984–Geraldine Ferraro is nominated by the Democratic Party to become the first woman from a major political party to run for the office of U.S. Vice President. Ferraro, age 48, campaigned with presidential hopeful, Walter Mondale, of Minnesota. Both lost in a landslide to the GOP ticket of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.



484–Leontius, Roman usurper, is crowned Eastern Emperor at Tarsus (present-day Turkey). He is recognized in Antioch and makes it his capital.

514–Pope Symmachus dies.

711–Umayyad forces, under Tariq ibn Ziyad, defeat the Visigoths, led by King Roderic.

931–Japanese Emperor Uda dies at Buddhist temple of Ninna-ji, at age 64.

1223–Egyptian Sultan, Baibars, is born al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari Abu al-Futuh in Dasht-i Kipchak/Cumania, Eurasian Steppe. He was the fourth sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri Dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France.

1333–The English win a decisive victory over the Scots at the Battle of Halidon Hill.

1374–Poet, Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca), dies in Arquà, Tuscany, Italy, at age 69. He had spent much of his younger life in France, and is considered the “Father of the Sonnet.”

1415–Philippa of Lancaster dies of the plague in Sacavém, Portugal, at age 55. She was Queen of Portugal (1387-1415) as the wife of King John I.

1545–The Tudor warship, Mary Rose, sinks off Portsmouth, England. In 1982, the wreck is salvaged in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology.

1553–Lady Jane Grey is replaced as Queen of England by Mary I of England, after only nine days on the throne.

1692–Five Massachusetts women (including Rebecca Nurse) are hanged for witchcraft. Fifteen young girls in the Salem community, charged as many as 150 citizens in the area with witchcraft during the greater part of the year.

1701–Representatives of the Iroquois Confederacy sign the Nanfan Treaty, ceding a large territory north of the Ohio River to England.

1702–A larger Polish-Saxon army of Augustus II the Strong, operating from an advantageous defensive position, is defeated by a Swedish army half its size, under the command of King Charles XII in the Battle of Klissow.

1759–Russian monk and Saint, Seraphim of Sarov, is born.

1800–Politician and general, Juan José Flores, is born. He was the first President of Ecuador.

1814–Industrialist, Samuel Colt, is born in Hartford, Connecticut. He founded Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company. During the American Civil War, his factory in Hartford supplied sidearms both to the North and the South. Later, his firearms were prominent during the settling of the Western frontier. Colt became one of the wealthiest men in America.

1817–Unsuccessful in his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Hawaii for the Russian-American Company, Georg Anton Schäffer is forced to admit defeat and leave Kauai.

1821–The Coronation of George IV of the United Kingdom takes place.

1822–Princess Augusta of Cambridge is born in England.

1832–The British Medical Association is founded as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association by Sir Charles Hastings at a meeting in the Board Room of the Worcester Infirmary.

1834–Impressionist painter, Edgar Degas, is born Hilaire-Germaine-Edgar Degas in Paris, France. He is best known for his paintings and pastels of ballet dancers and his bronze sculptures of ballerinas and racehorses. While Degas admired women, and desired intimacy, he was lacking in social skills, and remained a bachelor his entire life.

1843–Brunel's steamship the SS Great Britain is launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull or screw propeller. It is the largest vessel afloat in the world.

1845–The Great New York City Fire of 1845 kills four firefighters and 26 civilians, and destroys 345 buildings.

1848–A two-day Women's Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York.

1860–Accused axe murderess, Lizzie (Andrew) Borden, is born in Fall River, Massachusetts. She was tried and acquitted for the 1892 axe murders of her father and stepmother. Following her release from the prison in which she had been held during the trial, Borden chose to remain a resident of her birthplace for the rest of her life, despite facing significant ostracism.

1864–In the Taiping Rebellion, the Qing dynasty finally defeats the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

1865–Mineralogist and crystallographer, Georges Friedel, is born in France.

1865–Surgeon, Charles Horace Mayo, is born. He founded the Mayo Clinic.

1870–France declares war on Prussia.

1876–Having enlisted in the Dutch Colonial Army, Arthur Rimbaud arrives in the Sunda Isles and swiftly deserts.

1876–Religious leader, Joseph Fielding Smith, is born in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. He was the 10th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He was the son of Joseph F. Smith, the sixth president of the LDS Church, and grandson of Hyrum Smith, brother of LDS Church founder, Joseph Smith.

1878–Attorney, Alexander McSween, dies following a four-day gunfight at his home in Lincoln, New Mexico. He was a business partner of the Lincoln County War’s first victim, John Tunstall. Fighting alongside McSween were the Lincoln County Regulators, including Billy the Kid.

1883–Animator and producer, Max Fleischer, is born in Austria.

1890–George II of Greece is born at Tatoi Palace in Athens, Greece.

1894–Politician, Khawaja Nazimuddin, is born. He was the second Prime Minister of Pakistan.

1898–Following the public uproar surrounding his trial for libel, Emile Zola flees France on the advice of his lawyers.

1900–The first line of the underground Metro System begins operation in Paris, France.

1903–Maurice Garin wins the first Tour de France.

1904–Construction begins on the Liverpool Cathedral in Liverpool, England. The cathedral was completed 20 years later and consecrated on this same date in 1924.

1913–Billboard magazine publishes its first “Top 10” chart, titled "Last Week's 10 Best Sellers Among Popular Songs."

1919–Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen riot and burn down Luton Town Hall in Luton, England.

1922–Politician, George (Stanley) McGovern, is born in Avon, South Dakota. He was an American historian, author, U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972. In the general election McGovern lost to incumbent Richard Nixon in one of the biggest landslides in American electoral history.

1924–Actor, Pat Hingle, is born Martin Patterson Hingle, in Miami, Florida. He appeared in the films Splendor in the Grass, Nevada Smith, Hang ‘Em High, Norma Rae, The Falcon and the Snowman, Baby Boom, Batman, The Grifters, and The Quick and the Dead.

1924–Film director, producer, and screenwriter, Arthur (Gardner) Rankin, Jr., is born in New York, New York. He co-founded Rankin/Bass Productions, Inc. (originally Videocraft International, Ltd.). It was an American production company, known for its seasonal television specials, particularly its work in stop-motion animation. The specials included Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, The Little Drummer Boy, Santa Claus Is Coming to Town, Here Comes Peter Cottontail, Frosty the Snowman, Puss in Boots, and ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas.

1937–The Degenerate Art Exhibition opens in Munich, Germany. The exhibition displays 650 works of Modern art confiscated by the Nazis. Art defined by Adolf Hitler as being degenerate was considered to contribute to cultural disintegration. Works were displayed in small dark rooms, many without frames. Some were partially obscured by derogatory rhetoric scrawled across them. More than one million people attended the exhibition, which ran through November. In the months following, many pieces were sold by the Nazis to fund their war chest, and approximately 5,000 were burned. Three hundred works were stolen by art dealer, Hildebrand Gurlitt, who reported them destroyed: they were found in his son's Munich apartment in 2013.

1940–For the first time in World War II, Hitler appoints field marshals due to their military achievements.

1940–Actor, Dennis Cole, is born in Detroit, Michigan. Before breaking into acting, Cole was a model for men's physique magazines. He appeared on the TV shows Judd for the Defense, The Streets of San Francisco, Medical Center, Police Story, Police Woman, Charlie's Angels, Vega$, The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, Three's Company, and Murder, She Wrote. He was married to actress, Jaclyn Smith.

1941–Singer, Vikki Carr, is born in Mexico.

1941–British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, launches his "V for Victory" campaign in Europe.

1943–During World War II, Rome, Italy, is heavily bombed by more than 500 Allied aircraft, killing thousands of people.

1945–Actor, George Dzundza, is born.

1946–Sex symbol, Marilyn Monroe, films her first screen test. She passes it with flying colors and is signed to her first contract with Twentieth Century Fox Studios.

1947–The Prime Minister of the shadow Burmese government, Bogyoke Aung San (and six of his cabinet and two non-cabinet members), are assassinated by Galon U Saw.

1947–Korean politician, Lyuh Woon-hyung, is assassinated.

1947–Musician, Brian May, is born in England.

1948–Keith Godchaux, of The Grateful Dead, is born in San Francisco, California.

1952–The Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, open in Helsinki, Finland.

1954–Elvis Presley's first single, That's All Right, Mama, is released by Sun Records.

1956–Computer scientist, Mark Crispin, is born. He designed the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), used by e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail messages from a mail server over a TCP/IP connection. Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support IMAP. IMAP and the earlier POP3 (Post Office Protocol) are the two most prevalent standard protocols for email retrieval.

1957–The first rocket with a nuclear warhead is fired at Yucca Flat, Nevada.

1958–Julia Stanley Lennon is buried in Allerton Cemetery in Liverpool, England. Sadly, after her son, John Lennon, became famous, her headstone had to be removed to avoid vandalism.

1961–Actor, Campbell Scott, is born. He is the son of actor, George C. Scott.

1962–Actor, Anthony Edwards, is born.

1963–Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 347,800 feet on X-15 Flight 90. His flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention.

1965–Animal trainer, Clyde Beatty, dies of cancer in Ventura, California, at age 62. He started the Clyde Beatty Circus. Beatty became famous for his "fighting act," in which he entered a cage of wild animals with a whip and a pistol strapped to his side. The act was designed to showcase his courage and mastery of the wild beasts, which included lions, tigers, cougars, and hyenas, sometimes brought together all at once in a single cage. He appeared in the films The Big Cage, The Lost Jungle, Darkest Africa, Cat College, Jungle Woman, Here Comes the Circus, Africa Screams, Perils of the Jungle, Ring of Fear, and The Greatest Show on Earth.

1965–Politician, Syngman Rhee, dies in from a stroke while in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii, at age 90. He was the first President of South Korea.

1966–Frank Sinatra marries actress, Mia Farrow. The couple are photographed after the ceremony by 14 motion-picture cameras and 37 still cameras.

1967–A chart topper: All You Need Is Love by The Beatles.

1969–Apollo 11 and its astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, and Michael Collins, enter into orbit around the Moon.

1971–A press conference is held at Apple headquarters to promote Yoko Ono's book Grapefruit. John Lennon says, "In England I'm regarded as the guy who won the pools. She's regarded as the lucky Jap who married the guy who won the pools. In America, we are both treated as artists." Says Yoko: “The idea of the book is that anyone can be an artist. The artist is a frame of mind. In New York they call it a toilet reading book.” John then quips: “Yeah, that’s the best place to read it!”

1973–Clarence White, of The Byrds, is buried after being killed by a drunk driver at age 29.

1974–Actor, Joe Flynn, dies.

1975–Honky-tonk singer, Lefty Frizzell, dies after a massive stroke in Goodlettsville, Tennessee, at age 47. His biggest hit was If You've Got the Money I've Got the Time.

1976–Sagarmatha National Park is created in Nepal.

1979–The Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.

1980–The XXII Summer OlympicGames open in Moscow, Russia.

1981–In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French Prime Minister François Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development.

1983–The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan) is published.

1984–Geraldine Ferraro is nominated by the Democratic Party to become the first woman from a major political party to run for the office of U.S. Vice President. Ferraro, age 48, campaigned with presidential hopeful, Walter Mondale, of Minnesota. Both lost in a landslide to the GOP ticket of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

1985–The Val di Stava dam collapses in Val di Stava, Italy, killing 268 people.

1985–The Val di Stava dam collapses killing 268 people in Val di Stava, Italy.

1989–United Airlines Flight 232 crashes in Sioux City, Iowa, killing 112 people.

1995–Elvis Presley’s former doctor, Dr. George Nichopoulous, loses his medical license for being “too liberal” when prescribing addictive drugs.

1997–The Provisional Irish Republican Army resumes a ceasefire to end their 25-year campaign to end British rule in Northern Ireland.

2006–Actor, Jack Warden, dies.

2014–Actress, Skye McCole Bartusiak, dies of an accidental drug overdose in Houston, Texas, at age 21. She appeared in the films The Cider House Rules, The Psatriot, Blonde, Riding in Cars with Boys, Against the Ropes, and Boogeyman.

2014–Actor, James Garner, dies of natural causes at his home in Los Angeles, California, at age 86. He is best known for his starring roles in the TV shows Maverick and The Rockford Files. He appeared in the films The Girl He Left Behind, Sayonara, Darby’s Rangers, Cash McCall, The Children’s Hour, Boys’ Night Out, The Great Escape, The Thrill of It All, The Wheeler Dealers, Move Over Darling, The Americanization of Emily, 36 Hours, Duel at Diablo, Mister Buddwing, Grand Prix, How Sweet It is, Support Your Local Sheriff, Skin Game, They Only Kill Their Masters, Murphy’s Romance, Space Cowboys, and The Notebook.

2015–Josh Greenberg, dies of unknown causes in Gainesville, Florida, in at age 28. He was one of the co-founders of the online music streaming site Grooveshark.

2016–On the second day of the RNC Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, Donald Trump is nominated as the Republican Party candidate for President. Mike Pence is Trump’s running mate as Vice President.

2016–CEO and Chairman of Fox News, Roger Ailes, is reported to be leaving the network after charges of sexual harassment are filed against him by former Fox and Friends host, Gretchen Carlson.

2016–A tour bus, carrying mostly Chinese tourists from Liaoning Province, bursts into flames and crashes into a guardrail near Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport, killing 26 people.

2016–Television producer, Garry Marshall, dies of of pneumonia after suffering a stroke at a hospital in Burbank, California, at age 81. His work in TV includes The Danny Thomas Show (aka Make Room for Daddy), The Joey Bishop Show, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Lucy Show, The Odd Couple, Happy Days, Laverne and Shirley, Mork & Mindy, and Joanie Loves Chachi. His work as a film director includes Young Doctors in Love, The Flamingo Kid, Nothing In Common, Overboard, Beaches, Pretty Woman, Frankie and Johnny, The Other Sister, Runaway Bride, The Princess Diaries, and Raising Helen.


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