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1937–The American Federation of Radio Artists (AFRA) is organized. The union is for all radio performers, except musicians. It later became The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) to include TV performers.

579–Pope Benedict I dies.

762–Baghdad is founded by caliph Al-Mansur.

1419–A crowd of radical Hussites kill seven members of the Prague city council.

1470–Emperor Hongzhi of China is born. He was a peace-loving Emperor, and Hongzhi had only one Empress and no concubines, granting him the distinction of being the sole perpetually monogamous Emperor in Chinese history. He reigned during the mid-Ming Dynasty.

1502–Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja, in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras, during his fourth voyage.

1549–Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, is born in Florence, Italy.

1609–At Ticonderoga (present-day Crown Point, New York), Samuel de Champlain shoots and kills two Iroquois chiefs on behalf of his native allies. This will set the tone for French-Iroquois relations for the next 100 years.

1619–In Jamestown, Virginia, the first representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time.

1626–An earthquake in Naples, Italy, kills 10,000 people.

1635–In the Eighty Years' War, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, begins the recapture of the strategically important fortress from the Spanish Army.

1656–Swedish forces under the command of King Charles X Gustav defeat the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the Battle of Warsaw.

1676–Nathaniel Bacon issues the "Declaration of the People of Virginia," beginning Bacon's Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.

1683–Maria Theresa of Spain dies in Versailles, France, at age 44.

1718–Businessman, William Penn, dies penniless in Ruscombe, Berkshire, England, at age 73. He was a real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony, and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.

1729–Baltimore, Maryland, is founded.

1733–The first Masonic Grand Lodge in the future United States is constituted in Massachusetts.

1756–In Saint Petersburg, Russia, Bartolomeo Rastrelli presents the newly built Catherine Palace to Empress Elizabeth and her courtiers.

1792–Five hundred Frenchmen sing the French national anthem for the first time in Marseilles, France.

1811–Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of the Mexican insurgency, is executed by the Spanish in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

1818–Novelist and poet, Emily Brontë, is born in Thomton, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. She is the younger sister of Patrick Branwell Brontë, who will become the model for the dissipated Heathcliff in her only novel, Wuthering Heights. “Wuthering” is a Yorkshire colloquialism for stormy. Her sisters were Anne and Charlotte Brontë.

1825–Malden Island is discovered by Captain George Byron.

1859–The first ascent of Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps, take place.

1863–In the American Indian Wars, representatives of the United States and tribal leaders, including Chief Pocatello (of the Shoshone), sign the Treaty of Box Elder.

1863–Henry Ford, the man who motorized America, is born on a farm near Detroit, Michigan. He founded the Ford Motor Company. Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would profoundly impact the landscape of the 20th century. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry.

1864–In the American Civil War, Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia, by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.

1865–The steamboat, Brother Jonathan, sinks off the coast of Crescent City, California, killing 225 passengers.

1866–The Democratic government in New Orleans, Louisiana, orders police to raid an integrated Republican Party meeting, killing 40 people and injuring 150 others.

1871–The Staten Island Ferry Westfield's boiler explodes, killing over 85 people.

1872–Princess Clémentine of Belgium is born.

1890–Baseball player and manager, Casey Stengel, is born.

1894–Publisher, Blanche Knopf, is born Blanche Wolf in New York, New York. She was the president of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. and the wife of publisher Alfred Knopf, with whom she established the firm in 1915. The couple traveled the world seeking new authors, and Blanche was especially influential in having European and Latin American literature translated into English and published in the United States. She also worked closely with many American writers, including John Updike, Carl Van Vechten, Willa Cather, H.L. Mencken, and Dashiell Hammett.

1894–Author and critic, Walter Pater, dies of rheumatic fever at his home in Oxford, England, at age 54. He would spend most of his life at Oxford University and was one of the first English writers to discuss aesthetics. He coined the word “Renaissance” and popularized the phrase “art for art’s sake.”

1898–The Scientific American carries the first magazine automobile ad, in which the Winton Motor Car Company of Cleveland, Ohio, invited readers to “Dispense with a Horse.”

1898–Politician, Otto von Bismarck, dies in Friedrichsruh, Schleswig-Holstein, German Empire, at age 83. He was the first Chancellor of the German Empire. He was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.

1912–Emperor Meiji of Japan dies of uremia in Tokyo, Japan, at age 59. He is succeeded by his son, Yoshihito, who is known as Emperor Taisho.

1916–The Black Tom Island explosion occurs in Jersey City, New Jersey.

1918–American poet, Joyce Kilmer, is killed in action in World War I, near Seringes, France, at age 31. He is best known for his poem ”Trees.” Actor, Val Kilmer, is one of his descendents.

1922–Banker and businessman, Henry W. Bloch, is born, He co-founded H&R Block.

1927–Actor, Richard (Keith) Johnson, is born in Upminster, Essex, England. He appeared in the films Captain Horatio Hornblower, Calling Bulldog Drummond, Never So Few, The Haunting, The Pumpkin Eater, The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders, Khartoum, Turtle Diary, and The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. He was married to actress, Kim Novak.

1928–George Eastman demonstrates the first color movie.

1929–Puppeteer and TV producer, Sid Krofft, is born in Canada. puppeteer and producer

1932–The premiere of Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees is held. It is the first cartoon short to use Technicolor and the first Academy Award winning cartoon short.

1933–Edd "Kookie" Byrnes, star of the 1950s TV series 77 Sunset Strip, is born in Los Angeles, California. A “Top 40” hit, Kookie, Kookie, Lend Me Your Comb, was based on the character’s habit of combing back his pompadour haircut on the show.

1935–The first modern paperbacks go on sale, published by Penguin Books in Great Britain. The publisher, Allen Lane, had the brilliant idea of using large print runs to keep the price down. Doing this, he could put out classic books at about sixpence each. The first Penguin title was Ariel, a biography of Shelley by André Maurois.

1936–Bluesman, Buddy Guy, is born in Lettsworth, Louisiana. He is known for such tunes as Stone Crazy and Damn Right I've Got the Blues.

1937–The American Federation of Radio Artists (AFRA) is organized. The union is for all radio performers, except musicians. It later became The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) to include TV performers.

1938–Photographer, Terry O'Neill, is born in England.

1939–Film director, Peter Bogdanovich, is born in Kingston, New York. He was part of the wave of "New Hollywood" directors, which included William Friedkin, Brian De Palma, George Lucas, Martin Scorsese, Michael Cimino, and Francis Ford Coppola. He wrote three books on his favorite auteur filmmakers: The Cinema of Orson Welles, The Cinema of Howard Hawks, and The Cinema of Alfred Hitchcock. His films include The Last Picture Show, What’s Up, Doc, Paper Moon, Daisy Miller, At Long Last Love, Nickelodeon, They All Laughed, Mask, Texasville, and The Thing Called Love.

1940–Businessman, Clive Sinclair, is born in England. He founded Sinclair Radionics and Sinclair Research.

1941–Singer-songwriter, Paul Anka, is born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Among his many accomplishments is the writing of The Tonight Show theme for Johnny Carson. He had hits with Diana, Put Your Head on My Shoulder, and My Way.

1942–Frank Sinatra records the last of his 90 recordings with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra.

1945–The Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS Indianapolis, killing 883 seamen.

1945–Saxophonist, David Sanborn, is born.

1945–Philosopher and Symbolist poet, Paul Valéry, dies in Paris, France, at age 73.

1947–Actor, William Atherton, is born.

1947–Rocker, Marc Bolan, is born in London, England. As a member of T.Rex, he will have a big hit with Bang a Gong (Get It On).

1947–Actor, Arnold Schwarzenegger, is born in Austria. He was a bodybuilder and politician, who became the 38th Governor of California.

1947–Politician, Joseph Cook, dies. He was thew sixth Prime Minister of Australia.

1950–Musician, Frank Stallone, is born. He is the brother of actor, Sylvester Stallone. His mother is astrologer, Jacque Stallone.

1954–Elvis Presley plays his first official concert in Memphis, Tennessee. Earlier in the month, he had performed on a flatbed truck, but today he appears low on the bill (beneath Slim Whitman) at the Overton Park Shell. Advised by disc jockey, Dewey Phillips, to play uptempo material, he drives the crowd wild with his hip-swinging versions of Good Rockin' Tonight and That's All Right, Mama.

1954–Actor, Ken Olin, is born Kenneth Edward Olin in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his co-starring role on the TV series Thirtysomething. He was married to actress, Patricia Wettig.

1956–A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing “In God We Trust” as the U.S. national motto.

1956–Actress, Delta Burke, is born.

1956–Attorney, Anita Hill, is born.

1958–Singer-songwriter, Kate Bush, is born.

1961–Actor, Laurence Fishburne, is born.

1962–The Trans-Canada Highway, the largest national highway in the world, officially opens.

1962–Celebrity chef and TV personality, Alton (Crawford) Brown, is born in Los Angeles, California. He is best known as the host of the Food Network show Good Eats, which he created, as well as Iron Chef America and Cutthrout Kitchen. His knowledge and humorous approach earned him Bon Appétit magazine's "Cooking Teacher of the Year Award" and the James Beard Award for "Best TV Food Personality." He was also named "Best Food Guru" by Atlanta magazine in 2005.

1963–Actress, Lisa Kudrow, is born. She is best known for her co-starring role on the TV series Friends.

1964–Actress, Vivica A. Fox, is born.

1965–President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.

1966–Craig Gannon, of The Smiths, is born in England.

1968–A public announcement is made of the closing of the Apple Boutique. In the wee hours of the morning, John Lennon and Yoko Ono arrive at the store. Placing a sheet on the ground, Yoko raids the boutique, filling it with piles of designer clothing.

1969–President Richard Nixon makes an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam and meets with President Nguyen Van Thieu and U.S. military commanders.

1969–Actor, Simon Baker, is born in Launceston, Tasmania, Australia. Baker began his career making music videos in Australia. His first American TV series was The Guardian, but he is best known for the role of Patrick Jane in the TV series The Mentalist. He appeared in the films L.A. Confidential, Ride with the Devil, Sunset Strip, Red Planet, The Affair of the Necklace, The Devil Wears Prada, The Lodger, and The Killer Inside Me.

1970–Conductor, George Szell, dies of bone marrow cancer in Cleveland, Ohio, at age 73. He is best known for his long and successful tenure as music director of the Cleveland Orchestra.

1971–In the Apollo 15 Mission, David Scott and James Irwin land on the Moon with the first Lunar Rover.

1971–An All Nippon Airways Boeing 727 and a Japanese Air Force F-86 collide over Morioka, Iwate, Japan, killing 162 people.

1971–Comedian, Tom Green, is born in Canada.

1973–John Phillips, of The Mamas and The Papas, calls a press conference to accuse his old label, ABC-Dunhill, of "the systematic, cold-blooded theft of perhaps up to $60 million, stolen from each and every artist who ever recorded for the company during a seven-year period."

1974–President Richard Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings from the Watergate scandal, after being ordered to do so by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1974–Actress, Hilary Swank, is born.

1975–Teamsters leader, Jimmy Hoffa, mysteriously disappears from Bloomfield Township, Oakland County, Michigan, at age 62. He has never been found. It was believed that he was murdered. He was declared dead in absentia on July 30, 1982.

1978–The 730 (transport), Okinawa Prefecture changes its traffic on the right-hand side of the road to the left-hand side.

1980–Israel's Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law. It began as a private member's bill proposed by Geulah Cohen, whose original text stated that "the integrity and unity of greater Jerusalem (Yerushalayim rabati) in its boundaries after the Six-Day War shall not be violated."

1981–As many as 50,000 demonstrators, mostly women and children, took to the streets to protest food ration shortages in Communist Poland.

1983–Actress, Lynn Fontanne, dies of pneumonia in Genesee Depot, Wisconsin, at age 95. She is considered to be one of the great leading stage actresses of the 20th century. She teamed with her husband, Alfred Lunt, for many performances on the the American stage. Broadway's Lunt-Fontanne Theatre was named in their honor.

1989–Rodeo cowboy and bull rider, Lane Frost, dies.

1990–George Steinbrenner is forced by Commissioner Fay Vincent to resign as principal partner of the New York Yankees, for hiring Howie Spira to "get dirt" on Dave Winfield.

1996–Actress, Claudette Colbert, dies after a series of small strokes in Speightstown, Barbados, at age 92. She appeared in the films It Happened One Night, Cleopatra, Imitation of Life, The Gilded Lily, Drums Along the Mohawk, Boomtown, Skylark, The Palm Beach Story, Since You Went Away, Tomorrow is Forever, The Egg and I, Three Came Home, and Parrish.

1998–Television personality, Buffalo Bob Smith, dies of cancer in Hendersonville, North Carolina, at age 80. He is best known as the host of the 1950s children’s TV series The Howdy Doody Show.

2002–Prince Hridayendra of Nepal is born.

2003–In Mexico, the last “old style” Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the assembly line.

2003–Record producer, Sam Phillips, dies of respiratory failure in Memphis, Tennessee, at age 80. He founded Sun Records. As a small-time Memphis record producer, he would discover Elvis Presley. He also brought to the world’s attention the talents of Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, B.B. King, Howlin’ Wolf, and Rufus Thomas.

2006–The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC2. The show had aired for 42 years.

2007–Film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, dies in Rome, Italy, at age 94. Antonioni lay in state at City Hall in Rome where a large screen showed black-and-white footage of him among his film sets and behind-the-scenes. Best known for his "trilogy on modernity and its discontents": L'Avventura, La Notte, and L'Eclisse, as well as the English-language, Blowup, Antonioni "redefined the concept of narrative cinema" and challenged traditional approaches to storytelling, realism, drama, and the world at large.

2007–Film director, Ingmar Bergman, dies.

2012–A power grid failure in Delhi leaves more than 300 million people without power in northern India.

2012–A train fire on the Tamil Nadu Express in Andhra Pradesh, India, kills 32 passengers and injures 27 others.

2014–One hundred and fifty people are trapped after a landslide in Maharashtra, India, which kills 20 people.

2015–After a successful $9-million Kickstarter campaign, the Exploding Kittens card game is released to the world. Elan Lee, Shane Small, and Matthew Inman launched a Kickstarter campaign in January 2015 to create the "highly strategic kitty-powered version of Russian Roulette." They far surpassed their goal of $10,000, raising $8,782,571 from over 200,000 pledgers.

2015–After 40 years, new evidence emerges about the possible fate of Teamsters boss, Jimmy Hoffa. A mobster, believed to be involved in the labor boss’s disappearance, suggested before he died in 2014, that FBI was on the right track when they searched a New Jersey dump for Hoffa’s remains. Besides the garbage dump, there have been reports over the past four decades that the corrupt labor leader’s body was buried under the west end zone of Giants Stadium in the Meadowlands, and that he was incinerated in a garbage disposal plant.

2015–Country singer, Lynn Anderson, dies of a heart attack in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 67. She is known for a string of hits throughout the 1970s and 1980s, most notably her 1970 country-pop hit (I Never Promised You a) Rose Garden.

2016–A hot air balloon catches fire and crashes near Lockhart, Texas, killing 16 people.

2016–Actress, Glorida DeHaven, dies from a stoke in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 91. She appeared in the films Modern Times, Susan and God, Two-Faced Woman, Step Lively, Summer Holiday, Scene of the Crime, Three Little Words, and Summer Stock.


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