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1991–Poet, novelist, and critic, Howard Nemerov, dies in University City, Missouri, at age 71. He was Poet Laureate of the United States (1988-1989). For The Collected Poems of Howard Nemerov, he won the National Book Award for Poetry, Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, and Bollingen Prize.

328–The official opening of Constantine's Bridge built over the Danube between Sucidava (Corabia, Romania) and Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria) by the Roman architect, Theophilus Patricius.

465–Mayan ruler, Ahkal Mo' Naab' I, is born.

967–Emperor Murakami of Japan dies in Seiryoden of the Heian Kyo (Kyoto), at age 40.

980–Mokjong of Goryeo is born.

1029–Egyptian Caliph, Al-Mustansir Billah, is born.

1295–Scotland and France form an alliance against England, called the "Auld Alliance."

1316–Ferdinand of Majorca dies.

1321–Joan of the Tower (Joan of England) is born at the Tower of London in London, England.

1554–Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France, is born.

1586–Thomas Hooker, founder of the Colony of Connecticut, is born in England.

1594–Portuguese forces, under the command of Pedro Lopes de Sousa, begin an unsuccessful invasion of the Kingdom of Kandy during the Campaign of Danture in Sri Lanka.

1610–John Guy sets sail from Bristol to Newfoundland with 39 other colonists.

1666–Albert VI, Duke of Bavaria, dies in Munich, Germany, at age 82.

1687–Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

1717–Peter III of Portugal is born Pedro Clemente Francisco José António in the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, Portugal.

1755–Actress, Sarah Siddons, is born Sarah Kemble in Brecon, Wales. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own.

1770–The Battle of Chesma, between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, begins.

1775–The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.

1803–The Convention of Artlenburg is signed, leading to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).

1807–In Buenos Aires, Argentina, the local militias repel the British soldiers within the Second English Invasion.

1809–The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Wagram, is fought between the French and Austrian Empires.

1810–Showman, P.T. Barnum, is born. He co-founded the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.

1811–Venezuela declares independence from Spain.

1833–Admiral Charles Napier vanquishes the navy of the Portuguese usurper, Dom Miguel, at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.

1833–Inventor, Nicéphore Niépce, dies of a stroke in Saint-Loup-de-Varennes, Saône-et-Loire, France, at age 68. He is credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. He also invented the first internal combustion engine, which he conceived, created, and developed with his older brother, Claude.

1865–The world's first speed limit, two miles per hour, is imposed in Britain under the Locomotives and Highways Act.

1872–Édouard Herriot, Prime Minister of France, is born in Troyes, France.

1884–Germany takes possession of Cameroon.

1886–Politician, Willem Drees, is born. He was Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

1889–Writer, playwright, artist, and filmmaker, Jean Cocteau, is born in Maisons-Laffitte, France. His best known works are his films Blood of a Poet, Beauty and the Beast, and Orpheus, as well as his novel Les Enfants Terribles. But he may be best known for his social circle, which included Pablo Picasso, Marlene Dietrich, Coco Chanel, Erik Satie, Igor Stravinsky, Édith Piaf, and Colette.

1902–Diplomat and senator, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., is born in Nahant, Massachusetts. He was the Republican nominee for Vice President in the 1960 Presidential election, and the third U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations.

1904–Actor, (Hugh) Milburn Stone, is born in Burrton, Harvey County Kansas. He is best known for the role of Doc on the long-running TV Western Gunsmoke. He appeared in the films Made for Each Other, Young Mr. Lincoln, Johnny Apollo, The Great Train Robbery, No Man of Her Own, Flying Leathernecks, The Atomic City, Invaders from Mars, Pickup on South Street, and The Long Gray Line.

1911–Politician and banker, Georges Pompidou, is born Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou in Montboudif, France. He was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968 (the longest tenure in the position's history) and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.

1915–The Liberty Bell leaves Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by special train, on its way to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. This is the last trip outside Philadelphia that the custodians of the bell intend to permit.

1928–Politician and educator, Pierre Mauroy, is born. He was Prime Minister of France.

1928–Actor, Warren (Mercer) Oates, is born in Depoy, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. He appeared in the films Up Periscope, Yellowstone Kelly, Ride the High Country, The Rounders, Major Dundee, Welcome to Hard Times, In the Heat of the Night, The Wild Bunch, Two-Lane Blacktop, The Hired Hand, Dillinger, Badlands, Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia, Rancho Deluxe, Race with the Devil, The Brink’s Job, Stripes, and Blue Thunder.

1929–Actress, Katherine Helmond, is born.

1934–Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco, California.

1935–The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1936–Actress, Shirley Knight, is born.

1937–The canned luncheon meat, Spam, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.

1940–The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.

1943–During World War II, an Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily.

1943–In World War II, German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk (also known as Operation Citadel).

1943–Robbie Robertson, of The Band, is born in Canada.

1945–The liberation of the Philippines is declared during World War II.

1945–Journalist and politician, John Curtin, dies. He was the 14th Prime Minister of Australia.

1946–The bikini makes its debut, during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.

1946–Dancer and choreographer, Vladimir Mikhailovich Zakharov, is born in the Russian village of Murzitsy in the Sechenovsky District. He was founder and Chief Choreographer and Artistic Director of Moscow National Academic Theater of Dance Gzhel, and Moscow Ballet Academy Gzhel. Due to his academic efforts, the Theatre was awarded the title "Academic" for achievements in ballet and choreography education by the government in 1999.

1948–Britain's National Health Service Act goes into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care.

1950–The Knesset passes the Law of Return, which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.

1950–In the Korean War, American and North Korean forces clash, in the Battle of Osan.

1950–Huey Lewis, of Huey Lewis and the News, is born.

1950–Michael Monarch, of Steppenwolf, is born.

1954–Elvis Presley invents “rock 'n' roll” as he, Scotty Moore, and Bill Black start messing around on a song called That's All Right (Mama) at Sun Studios in Memphis, Tennessee. Studio owner, Sam Phillips, recalls, "I knew we had a hit."

1954–The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.

1954–Jimmy Crespo, of Aerosmith, is born.

1956–Politician, Horacio Cartes, is born. He was President of Paraguay.

1956–Terry Chimes, drummer for The Clash, is born in England.

1962–Algeria becomes independent from France.

1966–In Manilla, Philippines, as The Beatles make their way to the airport and their plane, they are greeted by angry mobs: the Philippine government is retaliating by refusing police protection for The Beatles. At the airport, the group is harassed, hit, and kicked. The Beatles escape without injury, but Brian Epstein suffers a sprained ankle, Mal Evans is kicked in the ribs, and Alf Bicknell receives serious injuries (a fractured rib and a spinal injury). Philippine officials come up with every possible excuse to delay The Beatles' departure, but the group is eventually allowed to fly from Manilla to New Delhi, India, where they had planned a stopover for a few days in order to investigate the country’s musical and spiritual culture. They are greeted at the airport by hundreds of hysterical fans, a depressing reminder that their fame is worldwide. Minutes after The Beatles' plane leaves the Philippines, President Marcos issues a statement indicating that The Beatles had not intended a slight to Mrs. Marcos or the people of the Philippines: too late to give The Beatles any relief, but quick enough to issue a disclaimer to the rest of the world. Years later, George Harrison will state that the only thing that would get him to return to Manilla, would be to drop an atomic bomb on it.

1968–Bill Graham opens the Fillmore West in San Francisco, California.

1968–German architect and founder of the Bauhaus school, Walter Gropius, dies of complications following surgery in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at age 86. Gropius was the founder of the Bauhaus school and one of the pioneers of Modern architecture.

1969–The Rolling Stones play a free concert at Hyde Park in London, England.

1969–Film director, Leo McCarey, dies of emphysema in Santa Monica, California, at age 70. His films include Duck Soup, Ruggles of Red Gap, The Awful Truth, Going My Way, The Bells of St. Mary’s, An Affair to Remember, and Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!

1971–The 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, reducing the voting age from 21 to 18.

1973–Eleven firefighters are killed in boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) in Kingman, Arizona, following a fire that broke out as propane was being transferred from a railroad car to a storage tank.

1973–Bengt Lagerberg, drummer for The Cardigans, is born in Sweden.

1975–Tennis player, Arthur Ashe, becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.

1975–Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.

1977–Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown.

1980–Swedish tennis player, Björn Borg, wins his fifth Wimbledon final and becomes the first male to win the championships five times in a row (1976-1980).

1982–Dave Haywood, of Lady Antebellum, is born.

1983–Bandleader, Harry James, dies of cancer in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 67. Frank Sinatra gave the eulogy at his funeral. He is best known as a trumpet playing bandleader who led a big band from 1939 to 1946. He appeared in the films Hollywood Hotel, Springtime in the Rockies, Swing Fever, Two Girls and a Sailor, The Benny Goodman Story, and The Opposite Sex.

1984–The Everly Brothers kick off their reunion tour in Cincinnati, Ohio.

1987–The LTTE uses suicide attacks on the Sri Lankan Army for the first time. The Black Tigers are born and, in the following years, will continue to kill with the tactic.

1989–In the Iran-Contra affair, Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines, and 1,200 hours of community service. His convictions are later overturned.

1991–Poet, novelist, and critic, Howard Nemerov, dies in University City, Missouri, at age 71. He was Poet Laureate of the United States (1988-1989). For The Collected Poems of Howard Nemerov, he won the National Book Award for Poetry, Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, and Bollingen Prize.

1995–The Republic of Armenia adopts its constitution, four years after its independence from the Soviet Union.

1996–Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.

1997–Sri Lankan Tamil MP A. Thangathurai is shot dead at Sri Shanmuga Hindu Ladies College in Trincomalee.

1997–Singer, Mrs. Elva Miller, dies.

1998–Julian Lennon appears at the star-studded Prince’s Trust Concert at Hyde Park in London, England.

1999–President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

2002–Character actress, Katy Jurado, dies of kidney failure in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, at age 78. After success in Mexico in the 1940s, she came to Hollywood and became a regular player in Western films of the 1950s and 1960s. She appeared in the films Arrowhead, Broken Lance, Trapeze, One-Eyed Jacks, Stay Away, Joe, and Under the Volcano.

2004–The first Indonesian presidential election is held.

2004–Journalist and politician, Hugh Shearer, dies. He was the third Prime Minister of Jamaica.

2006–North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile and a long-range Taepodong-2. The long-range Taepodong-2 reportedly fails in mid-air over the Sea of Japan.

2006–Businessman, Kenneth (Lee) Lay, dies of a heart attack while vacationing in Snowmass, Colorado, at age 64. He played a leading role in the corruption scandal that led to the downfall of Enron Corporation. Lay and Enron became synonymous with corporate abuse and accounting fraud when the scandal broke in 2001. On July 7, 2004, Lay was indicted by a grand jury on 11 counts of securities fraud and related charges.

2009–The largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever discovered, consisting of more than 1,500 items, is found near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England.

2012–The Shard in London, England, is inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 1,020 feet.

2013–Super-centenarian, James McCoubrey, dies of pneumonia in Walnut Creek, California, at age 111 years (295 days).

2014–Actress, Rosemary Murphy, dies of esophageal cancer in New York, New York, at age 89. She appeared in the films To Kill a Mocking Bird, You’ll Like My Mother, Walking Tall, Forty Carats, and Julia.

2015–Super-centenarian, Sakari Momoi, dies of kidney failure in Saitama, Saitama, Japan, at age 112 (and 150 days).

2015–Hippie beekeeper-turned-entrepreneur, Burt Shavitz, co-founder of the natural cosmetics company, Burt’s Bees, dies of respiratory complications in Bangor, Maine, at age 80.

2016–NASA's Juno spacecraft enters the orbit of Jupiter.

2016–The FBI recommends, with numerous reservations about her careless actions, that no charges be filed against Hillary Clinton over the use of her private email server while she was U.S. Secretary of State.

2017–President Donald Trump embarks for Europe to visit a key NATO ally and attend the G-20 Summit. It is the second foreign trip of his presidency.

2017–Volvo says it plans to phase out fossil fuels by building only electric or hybrid cars.

2017–Supporters of Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro storm the opposition-controlled National Assembly and injure several lawmakers, including the President of the National Assembly, Julio Borges. Several journalists are also injured in the assault.

2018–The European Parliament votes against the proposed copyright reform for the digital singles market.

2018–Facebook’s algorithms tag an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence as hate speech.

2018–Actor, James Woods, Oscar-nominated actor and outspoken Hollywood conservative, announces that he has been dropped by his longtime liberal talent agent, Ken Kaplan, over his politics.

2018–Two explosions at fireworks workshops in Tultepec, Mexico, (home to a major fireworks industry) kill at least 19 people, including rescue workers, and injure dozens of others.

2018–Political commentator, Ed Schultz, dies of natural causes in Washington, D.C., at age 64. He was the host of The Ed Show, a weekday news talk program on MSNBC from 2009 to 2015, and The Ed Schultz Show, a talk radio show, nationally syndicated by Dial Global from 2004 to 2014.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Constantine's Bridge over the Danube; Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France; Nicéphore Niépce; Jean Cocteau; the Liberty Bell; an early ad for Spam; The Clash; the Fillmore West in San Franicsco, California; Arthur Ashe; Harry James; Howard Nemerov; and Rosemary Murphy.

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