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1979–Little Richard's latest gig is saving souls as the Rev. Richard Penniman. He tells a congregation in California, "If God can save an old homosexual like me, he can save anybody."

838–Byzantine Emperor Theophilos suffers a heavy defeat by the Abbasids.

1099–Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1210–Joan of England, Queen of Scotland, is born in London, England.

1298–King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town of Falkirk, Scotland.

1456–In the Ottoman Wars in Europe, John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeats Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire.

1461–Charles VII of France dies of starvation due to a mouth infection in Mehun-sur-Yèvre, France, at age 58.

1478–Philip I of Castile is born in Bruges, Flanders, Burgundian Netherlands. He was called “the Handsome” or “the Fair,” and was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.

1484–In Battle of Lochmaben Fair, a 500-man raiding party, led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas, are defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany's brother James III of Scotland.

1499–The Swiss decisively defeat the army of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, in the Battle of Dornach.

1540–Hungarian King, John Zápolya, dies.

1587–A second group of English settlers arrives on Roanoke Island, off North Carolina, to re-establish the deserted colony.

1596–Michael I of Russia (1613-1645) is born Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov in Moscow, Russia.

1598–William Shakespeare’s play, The Merchant of Venice, is entered on the Stationers’ Register. By decree of Queen Elizabeth, the Stationers’ Register licensed printed works, giving the Crown tight control over all published material.

1676–Pope Clement X dies.

1686–Albany, New York, is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan.

1706–The Acts of Union 1707 are agreed upon by commissioners from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland: when passed by each countries' Parliaments, it brings about the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1713–Architect, Jacques-Germain Soufflot, is born in France. He designed the Panthéon.

1751–Caroline Matilda of Great Britain is born at Leicester House, in London, England. She was Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1775, as the wife of King Christian VII.

1793–Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first recorded human to complete a transcontinental crossing of Canada.

1796–The city of Cleveland, Ohio, is founded and named after General Moses Cleaveland.

1802–Emperor Gia Long conquers Hanoi and unified Viet Nam, which had experienced centuries of feudal warfare.

1805–In the Napoleonic Wars, an inconclusive naval action is fought between a combined French and Spanish fleet, under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain, and a British fleet, under Admiral Robert Calder.

1812–In the Napoleonic Wars, British forces, led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington), defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.

1832–French Emperor, Napoleon II, dies of tuberculosis at Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria, at age 21. He was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.

1864–Outside Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.

1869–Civil engineer, John A. Roebling, dies in Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn, New York, at age 63. He is known for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge.

1878–Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies dies from an ongoing illness in Le Havre, France, at age 72.

1890–Rose Kennedy, mother of future history-making politicians John, Robert, and Ted Kennedy, is born.

1893–Katharine Lee Bates writes America the Beautiful after admiring the view from the top of Pikes Peak near Colorado Springs, Colorado.

1893–Psychiatrist, Karl Menninger, is born.

1894–The first ever motor race is held in France, between the cities of Paris and Rouen. The fastest finisher is the Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, but the “official” victory is awarded to Albert Lemaître, driving his 3 hp petrol engined Peugeot.

1898–American Modernist, Alexander “Sandy” Calder, is born in Lawnton, Pennsylvania. He is best known as the originator of mobile sculpture (now commonly known as mobiles), and is the third generation in a family of artists. His great facility in mathematics and studies in mechanical engineering, combined with his expansive imagination, produced fantastic kinetic sculptures in perfect balance.

1899–Sobhuza II, King of Swaziland, is born.

1908–Writer, Amy Vanderbilt, is born in Staten Island, New York. She was an American authority on etiquette. In 1952, she published the best-selling book Amy Vanderbilt's Complete Book of Etiquette. Later retitled Amy Vanderbilt's Etiquette, the book has been updated and is still in circulation.

1915–Engineer, Sandford Fleming, dies in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, at age 88. He created Universal Standard Time. In 1876, after missing a train in Ireland because its printed schedule listed the time as p.m. instead of a.m., he proposed a single 24-hour clock for the entire world, located at the centre of the Earth and not linked to any surface meridian. At a meeting of the Royal Canadian Institute on February 8, 1879, he linked the clock to the anti-meridian of Greenwich (now 180°).By 1929, all of the major countries of the world had accepted time zones.

1916–A bomb explodes during a parade on Market Street in San Francisco, California, killing 10 people and injuring 40 others.

1916–Poet and writer, James Whitcomb Riley, dies.

1922–Comedian, Dan Rowan, of Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-in, is born in Beggs, Oklahoma.

1923–Politician, Bob Dole, is born.

1924–Singer, Margaret Whiting, is born.

1928–Actor, Orson Bean, is born.

1932–Theatrical producer, Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr., dies of pleurisy in Hollywood, California, at age 65. He was best known for The Ziegfeld Follies (1907-1931), and he was a starmaker during the days of Vaudeville.

1932–Fashion designer, Oscar de la Renta, is born.

1932–Movie producer, Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr., dies.

1933–Aviator, Wiley Post, returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York, completing the first solo flight around the world in seven days, 18 hours, and 49 minutes.

1934–Gangster, John Dillinger, dies of gunshot wounds while bring apprehended at the Biograph Theatre in Chicago, Illinois, at age 31. He was an American bank robber in Depression-era America. His gang robbed 24 banks and four police stations. The government demanded federal action, and J. Edgar Hoover developed a more sophisticated Federal Bureau of Investigation as a weapon against organized crime, using Dillinger and his gang as his campaign platform to launch the FBI.

1934–Actress, Louise Fletcher, is born.

1936–Novelist, Tom Robbins, is born Thomas Eugene Robbins in Blowing Rock, North Carolina. He interrupted his college career after two years at Washington and Lee University in Virginia, to try his hand at supporting himself as a poet in Greenwich Village, New York City. When that didn't work, he had a stint in the U.S. Air Force. His first novel was Another Roadside Attraction, published in 1971. Other best selling novels followed: Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, Still Life with Woodpecker, Jitterbug Perfume, and Skinny Legs and All.

1937–The U.S. Senate votes down President Franklin Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court.

1938–Actor, Terence Stamp, is born in England.

1940–Game show host, Alex Trebek, is born in Canada.

1941–Estelle Bennett, of The Ronettes, is born.

1941–George Clinton, of Parliament-Funkadelic, is born.

1942–The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.

1942–Gasoline rationing begins in the U.S. during World War II.

1943–During World War II, Allied forces capture the Palermo, Italy.

1943–Teen idol and Shindig! TV star, Bobby Sherman, is born in Santa Monica, California. His biggest hits were Hey Little Woman and Julie Do You Love Me. He also starred in the TV series Here Come The Brides.

1944–The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting a period of Communist rule in Poland.

1946–A Zionist underground organisation, the Irgun, bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, site of the civil administration and military headquarters for Mandatory Palestine. Ninety-one people are killed.

1946–Actor, Danny Glover, is born.

1946–Film director, Paul Schrader, is born.

1947–The flag of India is adopted.

1947–Comedian-actor, Albert Brooks, is born.

1947–Don Henley, of The Eagles, is born.

1948–Writer, S.E. Hinton, is born.

1951–Dezik and Tsygan are the first (Russian) dogs to make a sub-orbital flight.

1955–Actor, Willem Dafoe, is born in Appleton, Wisconsin. He appeared in the films Tom and Viv, Platoon, Mississippi Burning, The English Patient, and Auto Focus.

1962–The Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.

1963–The Beatles album, Introducing The Beatles (on the VeeJay label), is released in America. It was released prior to their first visit to the U.S. in February 1964, and therefore it went somewhat unnoticed by most teenage music lovers.

1963–Emily Saliers, of The Indigo Girls, is born.

1964–Actor, John Leguizamo, is born.

1964–Comedian-actor, David Spade, is born.

1967–The Doors make their debut on American Bandstand performing Light My Fire.

1967–Writer and poet, Carl Sandburg dies of natural causes in Flat Rock, North Carolina, at age 89.

1968–Welsh actor, Rhys Ifans, is born Rhys Owain Evans in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He is known for his recurring role as Mycroft Holmes on the TV series Elementary. He has has appeared in the films The Replacements, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1, The Amazing Spider-Man, and Notting Hill.

1971–John Lennon and Yoko Ono are filmed for one of the most memorable and most-seen sequences from the finished “Imagine” project: with the early morning mist still swirling around the grounds of their Tittenhurst mansion, the couple walk up the path toward the entrance of the house, which has “This Is Not Here” written above the door. This scene will serve as the opening to the song Imagine. Later in the afternoon, another memorable scene takes place: John Lennon is filmed in the music room at the white grand piano singing Imagine, while Yoko opens the shutters on the windows to let in the light. Then, with most of the day’s shooting complete, John sits for the photograph that will appear on the cover of the Imagine album.

1971–Nineteen days after the death of singer, Jim Morrison, The Doors are awarded a gold record for L.A. Woman. The LP includes the big hit Riders on the Storm.

1972–Bobby Darin's variety show, The Bobby Darin Amusement Company, debuts on CBS-TV.

1972–Actor, Colin Ferguson, is born in Canada.

1973–Singer-songwriter, Rufus Wainwright, is born in Canada.

1976–Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed during the imperial Japan's conquest of the country during World War II.

1977–Chinese leader, Deng Xiaoping, is restored to power.

1979–Little Richard's latest gig is saving souls as the Rev. Richard Penniman. He tells a congregation in California, "If God can save an old homosexual like me, he can save anybody."

1983–Martial law is officially revoked in Poland.

1988–Five hundred U.S. scientists pledge to boycott the Pentagon’s germ-warfare research.

1990–Greg LeMond, an American road racing cyclist, wins his third Tour de France, after leading the majority of the race. It was his second consecutive Tour de France victory.

1991–Serial killer, Jeffrey Dahmer, is arrested in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, after police discover human remains in his apartment.

1992–Columbian drug lord, Pablo Escobar, escapes from his luxury prison near Medellín, Columbia, fearing extradition to the United States.

1993–Levees rupture near Kaskaskia, Illinois, forcing the entire town to evacuate by barges operated by the Army Corps of Engineers.

1997–The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan, and Sarnia, Ontario.

1998–President Bill Clinton signs a bill designed to mold the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) into a “friendlier, fairer tax collector.” Democrat and Republican lawmakers attended the bill-signing ceremony at the White House.

2002–Prince Felix of Denmark is born.

2003–Members of the 101st Airborne of the U.S., aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein's sons, Uday and Qusay. They also kill Mustapha Hussein, Qusay's 14-year-old son, and a bodyguard.

2005–Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers responsible for the July 7, 2005 and July 21, 2005 London bombings.

2007–Cinematographer and director, László Kovács, dies.

2008–Actress, Estelle Getty, dies.

2011–Norway suffers twin terror attacks: the first is a bomb blast targeting government buildings in central Oslo, and the second is a massacre at a youth camp on the island of Utoya.

2011–Actress, Linda Christian, dies.

2013–A series of earthquakes in Dingxi, China, kills at least 89 people and injures more than 500 others.

2013–Prince George of Cambridge is born.

2013–Actor, Dennis Farina, dies from a blood clot in his lung in Scottsdale, Arizona, at age 69. He appeared in the films Thief, Code of Silence, Jo Jo Dancer, Your Life is Calling, Midnight Run, Another Stakeout, Get Shorty, and Saving Private Ryan.

2015–Three people die and 17 others are injured in a collision between a Pendolino train and a lorry near Studénka, north Moravia, in the Czech Republic.

2015–Lawyer, Loredana Nesci, star of the Sundance Channel show Loredana, Esq., is found dead in her home in Redondo Beach, California. Her partner, Robert Reagan, is arrested on suspicion of murder.

2015–Eddie Hardin, of The Spencer Davis Group, dies of a heart attack in London, England, at age 66.

2015–Country singer, Daron Norwood, dies in Hereford, Texas, at age 49. On November 5, 1995, Norwood decided to quit his career as a country singer due to his addiction to alcohol. He told the Lubbock-Avalanche Journal that during that time period, he was taking 20 to 25 shots of Jack Daniels a night. Norwood served as a motivational speaker. His program, called "Keep It Straight," was developed to warn children of the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse. His albums include Daron Norwood, Ready, Willing and Able, and I Still Believe.

2016–China begins demolishing buildings and evicting residents at Larung Gar in Tibet, one of the largest religious institutes in the world. Officials site overpopulation and security as the leading reasons for the planned action.

2016–A German-Iranian gunman shoots and kills nine people and injures 17 others in a terrorist attack at a shopping mall in Munich, Germany.


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