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1914–Car designer, Giuseppe “Nuccio” Bertone, is born in Turin, Italy. He took over Carrozzeria Bertone from his father after World War II, growing the small business into a car building and designing dynasty. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint, would become the company's main product, along with Fiat 850 Spiders, Fiat Dinos, Simca 1200S Coupes, the Alfa Romeo Montreal, and Lamborghinis. His 100th design was a special Ford Mustang. He also designed the famous Lambretta GP/DL range of scooters.

BC 362–The Thebans, led by Epaminondas, defeat the Spartans.

414–Emperor Theodosius II, age 13, yields power to his older sister, Aelia Pulcheria, who reigned as regent and proclaims herself Empress Augusta of the Eastern Roman Empire.

836–Pactum Sicardi, a peace treaty between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples, is signed.

943–Taejo of Goryeo dies in Korea, at age 66. He was the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century.

965–Pope Benedict V dies in Hamburg, Holy Roman Empire.

993–Ulrich of Augsburg is canonized as a Saint.

1054–A supernova, called SN 1054, is seen by the Chinese Song Dynasty, Arab, and possibly Amerindian observers, near the star Zeta Tauri. For several months it remains bright enough to be seen during the day. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula.

1120–Jordan II of Capua is anointed as Prince after his infant nephew's death.

1187–During the Crusades, Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem.

1359–Francesco II Ordelaffi of Forlì surrenders to the Papal commander, Gil de Albornoz.

1534–Christian III is elected King of Denmark and Norway in the town of Rye.

1546–Murad-Murat III, Sultan of Turkey (1574-1595), is born in Manisa.

1610–The Battle of Klushino is fought between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia during the Polish-Muscovite War.

1634–The city of Trois-Rivières is founded in New France (present-day Quebec, Canada).

1744–The Treaty of Lancaster, in which the Iroquois cedes lands between the Allegheny Mountains and the Ohio River to the British colonies, is signed in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

1774–The Orangetown Resolutions are adopted in the Province of New York, one of many protests against the British Parliament's Coercive Acts.

1776–The American “Declaration of Independence” is signed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The United States of America has achieved its independence from Great Britain.

1799–F.J. Oscar I, King of Sweden and Norway (1844-1859), is born.

1802–The U.S. Military Academy officially opens at West Point, New York.

1803–The Louisiana Purchase is announced to the American people.

1804–Author, Nathaniel Hawthorne, is born Nathaniel Hathorne in Salem, Massachusetts. His works include The House of the Seven Gables, Twice-Told Tales, and The Scarlet Letter.

1816–Businessman, Hiram Walker, is born in East Douglas, Massachusetts. He was founder of the Hiram Walker and Sons Ltd. distillery in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Hiram Walker's famous Canadian Club Whisky was Canada's top export whisky.

1817–Construction begins on the Erie Canal in Rome, New York.

1826–Composer, Stephen (Collins) Foster, is born in Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania. Foster wrote over 200 songs. Among his best known are Oh! Susanna, Camptown Races, Old Folks at Home, Swanee River, My Old Kentucky Home, Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair, Old Black Joe, and Beautiful Dreamer. Many of his compositions remain popular more than 150 years after he wrote them.

1826–John Adams, the second President of the United States (1797-1801), a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Thomas Jefferson’s close friend, dies in Quincy, Massachusetts, at age 90, 50 years after America won its independence from Great Britain. Adams’ last words are: “Jefferson lives!” although Jefferson had already passed away.

1826–Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States (1801-1809) American Founding Fathers, and author of the Declaration of Independence, dies at his home in Charlottesville, Virginia, at age 83, 50 years after America won its independence from Great Britain. Shortly after his death, they found a gold locket on a chain around his neck, where it had rested for more than 40 years: it contained a small faded blue ribbon which tied a lock of his wife Martha's brown hair.

1827–Slavery is abolished in New York.

1829–The cornerstone is laid for the first U.S. Mint at Chestnut and Juniper Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1831–Samuel Francis Smith writes the song America (known commonly as “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee”) for Independence Day festivities in Boston, Massachusetts.

1831–James Monroe, the fifth U.S. President (1817-1825), dies heart failure and tuberculosis in New York, New York, at age 73. His death came 55 years after the U.S. Declaration of Independence was proclaimed, and 5 years after the death of two other Founding Fathers who became president: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.

1836–The Wisconsin Territory is formed.

1837–The Grand Junction Railway, the world's first long-distance railway, opens between Birmingham and Liverpool, England.

1838–The Iowa Territory is formed.

1845–Writer, Henry David Thoreau, embarks on a two-year experiment in simple living at Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts. One of Thoreau’s most famous quotes is, “Simplify, simplify.”

1847–Circus impresario, James Anthony Bailey, is born in Detroit, Michigan. He founded the Barnum & Bailey Circus.

1848–The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is published.

1855–The first edition of Walt Whitman's book of poems, Leaves of Grass, is published in Brooklyn, New York.

1862–Lewis Carroll tells Alice Liddell a story that would eventually grow into Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels.

1863–The city of Boise, Idaho, is founded.

1863–In the American Civil War, Vicksburg, Mississippi, surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant after a 47-day siege.

1863–The Army of Northern Virginia withdraws from the battlefield after losing the Battle of Gettysburg, signaling an end to the Southern invasion of the North.

1865–The first edition of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll is published.

1865–The first edition of Alice in Wonderland is published.

1866–A firecracker thrown in the woods starts a fire that destroys much of Portland, Maine.

1872–Calvin Coolidge, 30th U.S. President (1923-1929), is born in Plymouth Notch, Vermont.

1876–The first public exhibition of electric light takes place in San Francisco, California.

1879–In the Anglo-Zulu War, the Zululand capital of Ulundi is captured by British troops and burned to the ground, ending the war and forcing King Cetshwayo to flee.

1881–Brooker T. Washington establishes the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

1882–Telegraph Hill Observatory opens in San Francisco, California.

1883–Buffalo Bill Cody presents his first Wild West Show in North Platte, Nebraska.

1883–Cartoonist, Rube Goldberg, is born Reuben Garrett Lucius Goldberg in San Francisco, California. He joined The San Francisco Chronicle in 1904, where he became a sports cartoonist. The following year, he took a job with The San Francisco Bulletin, where he remained until he moved to New York City in 1907, finding employment as a cartoonist with The New York Evening Mail. Goldberg received many honors in his lifetime, including a Pulitzer Prize for his political cartooning in 1948.

1884–The Statue of Liberty is presented to America by the people of France.

1886–The first scheduled Canadian transcontinental train arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia.

1888–The first organized rodeo competition is held in Prescott, Arizona.

1892–Western Samoa changes the International Date Line: Monday, July 4th occurs twice, resulting in a year with 367 days.

1892–The first double-decked street car service begins in San Diego, California.

1894–The short-lived Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by Sanford B. Dole.

1894–Paul Boynton's Water Chutes opens in Chicago, Illinois.

1898–En route from New York to Le Havre, the SS La Bourgogne collides with another ship and sinks off the coast of Sable Island, killing 549 people.

1898–Super-centenarian, Gertrude Weaver, is born in southwestern Arkansas. She would become the oldest living person in the United States, upon the death of Dina Manfredini on December 17, 2012, and the oldest living person in the world on April 1, 2015, following the death of Misao Okawa. Weaver did not have any chronic health problems typical of people her age: she slept well and did not drink alcohol or smoke.

1900–24th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Reginald Doherty beats S. Smith (6-8, 6-3, 6-1, 6-2).

1900–17th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Blanche Hillyard beats C. Sterry (4-6, 6-4, 6-4).

1901–William Howard Taft becomes American governor of the Philippines.

1902–Mobster, Meyer Lansky, is born Meyer Suchowljansky in Grodno, Belarus. He was a major organized crime figure who, along with his associate Charles “Lucky” Luciano, was instrumental in the development of the "National Crime Syndicate" in the United States. The character Hyman Roth, portrayed by Lee Strasberg, and certain aspects of the main character Michael Corleone from the film The Godfather Part II, are based on Lansky. Maximilian "Max" Bercovicz, the gangster played by James Woods in Sergio Leone's, Once Upon a Time In America, was also inspired by Lansky. And Lansky is actually portrayed as a character in four films: Havana (by Mark Rydell), Bugsy (by Ben Kingsley), Mobsters (by Patrick Dempsey), and The Lost City (by Dustin Hoffman).

1902–Indian spiritual leader, Swami Vivekananda, dies in Belur Math, Bengal Presidency, British India (now West Bengal, India) at age 39. On the day of his death, Vivekananda awoke early, went to the chapel at Belur Math and meditated for three hours. He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda, Sanskrit grammar and the philosophy of yoga to pupils, later discussing with colleagues a planned Vedic college. At 7:00 p.m. Vivekananda went to his room, asking not to be disturbed, where he died at 9:10 p.m. while meditating. Vivekananda fulfilled his self-prophecy that he would not live to 40 years.

1903–The Philippine-American War is officially concluded.

1903–Dorothy Levitt is reported as the first English woman to compete in a “motor race.”

1910–African-American boxer, Jack Johnson, knocks out white boxer, Jim Jeffries, in a heavyweight boxing match, sparking race riots across the U.S.

1910–Boxer, William T. "Champion Jack" Dupree, is born William Thomas Dupree in Irish Channel, New Orleans, Louisiana. He was also a blues and boogie-woogie pianist and singer.

1910–Sociologist, Robert (King) Merton, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He spent most of his career teaching at Columbia University. He is best known for having created the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy," two important concepts in 20th century society.

1910–Actress, Gloria Stuart, is born Gloria Frances Stewart in Santa Monica, California. She was the founder of the Screen Actors Guild. She appeared in the films Roman Scandals, Poor Little Rich Girl, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Island in the Sky, My Favorite Year, Mass Appeal, Wildcats, and Titanic.

1911–A massive heat wave strikes the northeastern United States, killing 380 people in 11 days and breaking temperature records in several cities.

1911–Entertainer, Mitch Miller, is born Mitchell William Miller in Rochester, New York. He was the star of the popular 1950s TV show Sing Along with Mitch.

1912–Jack Johnson defeats Jim Flynn in Round 9 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1912–TV personality, Virginia Graham, is born Virginia Komiss in Chicago, Illinois. She hosted the syndicated programs Food for Thought (1953-1957), Girl Talk, which debuted in January 1963 and ran until 1969, and The Virginia Graham Show (1970-1972).

1913–President Woodrow Wilson addresses American Civil War veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913.

1913–Wonderland Park opens at Ocean Beach, near San Diego, California. The carefully planned amusement park covers an area of 9.5 acres. Its attractions include the Blue Streak racing coaster, a Chute-the Chutes, a steep water-slide, a Trip Thru Panama boat ride, the Riggler, a Hershell-Spillman Carousel, Joyland, Blarney Castle, a bowling alley, roller skating rink, half-acre children’s playground, bandshell, theater, Japanese tea garden, and game booths.

1913–37th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: A.F. Wilding beats McLoughlin (8-6, 6-3, 10-8).

1913–30th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Dorothea Chambers beats W. McNair (6-0, 6-4).

1914–The funeral of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, takes place in Vienna, Austria, six days after their assassinations in Sarajevo.

1914–The first American motorcycle race takes place in Dodge City, Kansas.

1914–38th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Norman Brookes beats A. Wilding (6-4, 6-4, 7-5).

1914–31st Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Dorothea Chambers beats E. Larcombe (7-5, 6-4).

1914–Car designer, Giuseppe “Nuccio” Bertone, is born in Turin, Italy. He took over Carrozzeria Bertone from his father after World War II, growing the small business into a car building and designing dynasty. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint, would become the company's main product, along with Fiat 850 Spiders, Fiat Dinos, Simca 1200S Coupes, the Alfa Romeo Montreal, and Lamborghinis. His 100th design was a special Ford Mustang. He also designed the famous Lambretta GP/DL range of scooters.

1916–Tokyo Rose, is born Iva Toguri D'Aquino in Los Angeles, California. She was an American who participated in English-language propaganda broadcasts on The Zero Hour radio show transmitted by Radio Tokyo to Allied soldiers in the South Pacific during World War II. After the Japanese defeat, Toguri was detained for a year by the United States military before being released for lack of evidence. Later, the Federal Bureau of Investigation renewed its investigation of Toguri's wartime activities. She was subsequently charged by the U.S. Attorney's Office with eight counts of treason. Her 1949 trial resulted in a conviction on one count, making her the seventh American to be convicted on that charge, for which she spent more than six years out of a 10-year sentence in prison.

1918–Mehmed V dies at age 73, and Ottoman sultan, Mehmed VI, ascends to the throne.

1918–Bolsheviks kill Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family.

1918–Advice columnist, Abigail Van Buren, is born Pauline Phillips in Sioux City, Iowa. She wrote the syndicated newspaper advice column “Dear Abbey.” She is the twin sister of Ann Landers.

1918–Advice columnist, Ann Landers, is born Esther Pauline Friedman in Sioux City, Iowa. She later used the name Eppie Lederer. “Ann Landers” was a pen name created in 1943 by The Chicago Sun-Times advice columnist, Ruth Crowley (which was taken over by Eppie Lederer in 1955). Crowley kept her identity as Landers a secret, even enjoining her children to help her keep it quiet, which made it easy for Lederer to step in and take over the column. For 56 years, the “Ask Ann Landers” syndicated advice column was a regular feature in many newspapers across North America. Lederer was the identical twin sister of Pauline Phillips, who wrote the "Dear Abby" advice column as Abigail Van Buren.

1919–Jack Dempsey defeats Jess Willard for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1920–Real estate billionaire, Leona Helmsley, is born Lena Mindy Rosenthal in Marbletown, New York. She was known for her flamboyant personality and had a reputation for tyrannical behavior that earned her the title “Queen of Mean.” After allegations of non-payment by her of contractors hired by her to build her home, Helmsley was investigated and convicted of federal income tax evasion and other crimes in 1989. Although having initially received a sentence of 16 years, Helmsley was required to serve only 19 months in prison and two months under house arrest. During the trial, a former housekeeper testified that she had heard Helmsley say: "We don't pay taxes. Only the little people pay taxes.”

1924–Actress, Eva Marie Saint, is born in Newark, New Jersey. She appeared in the films On the Waterfront, That Certain Feeling, A Hatful of Rain, Raintree Coounty, North by Northwest, Exodus, All Fall Down, 36 Hours, The Sandpiper, Grand Prix, Loving, Nothing in Common, Don’t Come Knocking, and Because of Winn-Dixie.

1925–45th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Rene Lacoste beats J. Borotra (6-3, 6-3, 4-6, 8-6).

1925–Actor, Eric Fleming, is born Edward Heddy, Jr. in Santa Paula, California. He is best known for his starring role on the TV Western Rawhide. He appeared in the films Conquest of Space, Fright, Queen of Outer Space, Curse of the Undead, and The Glass Bottom Boat.

1926–Knoebels Amusement Park opens in Elysburg, Pennsylvania. Attractions include the Grand Carousel, the Pioneer Train, the Haunted Mansion, JetStar Rollercoaster, and the Giant Flume.

1927–Actress, Gina Lollobrigida, is born Luigina Lollobrigida in Subiaco, Italy. She appeared in the films The White Line, A Dog’s Life, The Young Caruso, The Wayward Wife, Beat the Devil, Trapeze, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Never So Few, Solomon and Sheba, Go Naked in the World, Come September, Strange Bedfellows, Hotel Paradiso, and Buona Sera, Mrs. Campbell.

1927–Playwright and screenwriter, (Marvin) Neil Simon, is born in the Bronx, New York. He wrote more than 30 plays and nearly the same number of movie screenplays, mostly adaptations of his plays. He has received more combined Oscar and Tony award nominations than any other writer. Among his works are Come Blow Your Horn, Barefoot in the Park, The Odd Couple, Sweet Charity, The Out-of-Towners, Plaza Suite, Promises Promises, The Heartbreak Kid, The Prisoner of Second Avenue, The Sunshine Boys, Caifornia Suite, Chapter Two, They’re Playing Our Song, The Goodbye Girl, Brighton Beach Memoirs, and Biloxi Blues. He was married to actresses, Marsha Mason and Elaine Joyce.

1930–43rd Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Helen Moody beats Elizabeth Ryan (6-2, 6-2).

1930–Businessman, George Steinbrenner, is born George Michael Steinbrenner III in Rocky River, Ohio. He was the principal owner and managing partner of Major League Baseball's New York Yankees. During Steinbrenner's 37-year ownership from 1973 to 2010, the longest in club history, the Yankees earned seven World Series titles and 11 pennants.

1931–Actor, Stephen Boyd, is born William Millar in Glengormley, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. He appeared in the films The Man Who Never Was, Island in the Sun, Woman Obsessed, The Best of Everything, Ben-Hur, Billy Rose’s Jumbo, Lisa, The Poppy is Also a Flower, The Oscar, and Fantastic Voyage.

1933–Work begins on the Oakland Bay Bridge. It will connect San Francisco and Oakland, California.

1934–Leo Szilard patents the chain-reaction design for the atomic bomb.

1934–Joe Louis wins his first professional boxing match.

1934–Physicist and chemist, Marie Curie, dies of aplastic anemia at a sanatorium in Passy, Haute-Savoie, France, at age 66. The anemia was due to exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I. Her achievements include the development of the theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize.

1936–49th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Hull Jacobs beats H. Sperling (6-2, 4-6, 7-5).

1937–Queen Sonja of Norway is born Sonja Haraldsen at Red Cross Clinic in Oslo, Norway. She was married to King Harald V.

1938–Singer, Bill Withers, is born William Harrison Withers, Jr. in Slab Fork, West Virginia. His hits include Ain’t No Sunshine, Grandma’s Hands, Lean on Me, Use Me, Who Is He (and What Is He to You), and Just the Two of Us. He was married to actress, Denise Nicholas.

1939–Lou Gehrig, recently diagnosed with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), informs a crowd at Yankee Stadium that he considers himself "The luckiest man on the face of the earth," then announces his retirement from Major League baseball.

1940–Dave Rowberry, of The Animals, is born David Eric Rowberry in Mapperley, Nottinghamshire, England. He replaced original keyboardist, Alan Price, in the band. Rowberry played on many of the group's big hits, including We Gotta Get Out of This Place, It's My Life, Don't Bring Me Down, Inside-Looking Out, and See See Rider.

1941–Nazi troops massacre Polish scientists and writers in the captured city of Lviv, Ukraine.

1941–The Great Choral Synagogue in German occupied Riga is burned with 300 Jews locked in the basement.

1942–The U.S. air offensive against Nazi Germany begins.

1942–Prince Michael of Kent is born Michael George Charles Franklin in Coppins, Iver, Buckinghamshire, England. He is a paternal first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, being a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary.

1943–In Gibraltar, a Royal Air Force B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into the sea in an apparent accident moments after takeoff, killing 16 passengers on board. Only the pilot survives.

1943–During World War II, the Battle of Kursk, the largest full-scale battle in history and the world's largest tank battle, begins in the village of Prokhorovka.

1943–Journalist, Geraldo (Michael) Rivera, is born in New York, New York. He is an attorney, reporter, author, and talk show host. He was the host of the talk show Geraldo from 1987 to 1998. He hosted the newsmagazine program, Geraldo at Large, and appears regularly on Fox News as a contributor.

1943–Alan (Christie) Wilson, of Canned Heat, is born in Arlington, Massachusetts. He was a co-founder, leader, and primary composer for the band. With Canned Heat, Wilson performed at two prominent concerts of the 1960s era: the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and Woodstock in 1969. Although Canned Heat's live performance was cut from the original theatrical release of the Woodstock film, they were featured in the 25th anniversary "Director's Cut." Wilson also wrote and sang the hit On the Road Again.

1946–After 381 years of near-continuous colonial rule by various powers, the Philippines attains full independence from the United States.

1946–Ron Kovic, disabled Vietnam veteran and activist, is born Ronald Lawrence Kovic in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. He is an American anti-war activist, writer, and former U.S. Marine Corps sergeant, who was wounded and paralyzed in the Vietnam War. His story is told in the film Born on the 4th of July, starring Tom Cruise.

1947–The "Indian Independence Bill" is presented before the British House of Commons, proposing the independence of the Provinces of British India into two sovereign countries, India and Pakistan.

1947–61st Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Jack Kramer beats Tom P. Brown (6-1, 6-3, 6-2).

1948–Jeremy (Cedric) Spencer, of Fleetwood Mac, is born in Hartlepool, County Durham, England. He remained with the band until his abrupt departure in February 1971, when he joined a religious group called the "Children of God," now known as "The Family International," with which he is still affiliated.

1950–Radio Free Europe makes its first broadcast.

1951–A court in Czechoslovakia sentences American journalist, William N. Oatis, to 10 years in prison on charges of espionage.

1951–William Shockley announces the invention of the junction transistor.

1952–66th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Frank Sedgman beats J. Drobny (4-6, 6-2, 6-3, 6-2).

1952–John (Charles) Waite, of The Babys, is born in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. As a solo artist, he had a big hit with Missing You in 1984.

1953–60th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Maureen Connolly beats Doris Hart (8-6, 7-5).

1954–Dr. Sam Sheppard's wife, Marilyn, is murdered and he is falsely accused of the crime. His story is told in the TV series and film The Fugitive.

1954–Model, Morganna, is born Morganna Roberts in Louisville, Kentucky. She famously rushed the field on many occasions and kissed Major League Baseball players including Nolan Ryan, Pete Rose, Johnny Bench, George Brett, Steve Garvey, and Cal Ripken, Jr.

1958–President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Rivers and Harbors Flood Control Bill.

1958–A chart topper: All I Have to Do is Dream by The Everly Brothers.

1958–72nd Wimbledon Men's Tennis: A Cooper beats N. Fraser (3-6, 6-3, 6-4, 13-11).

1959–With the admission of Alaska as the 49th U.S. state earlier in the year, the 49-star American flag debuts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1959–66th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Maria Fraser beats Darlene Hard (6-4, 6-3).

1960–America's new 50-star flag, goes on display in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It includes the star for the newest U.S. state, Hawaii.

1961–On its maiden voyage, the Soviet nuclear-powered submarine K-19 suffers a complete loss of coolant to its reactor. The crew are able to effect repairs, but 22 of them die of radiation poisoning over the following two years.

1962–Island Records incorporates.

1964–A chart topper: I Get Around by The Beach Boys.

1964–71st Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Maria Fraser beats Margaret Court.

1966–President Lyndon Johnson signs the Freedom of Information Act, which would go into effect the following year.

1966–The Beatles play two shows at Rizal Memorial Football Stadium, Manilla, Luzon, the Philippines. Total attendance is 80,000. The Beatles fail to appear at a palace reception hosted by President Marcos' family, who had not been informed that The Beatles had declined the invitation. The Philippine media misrepresent this as a deliberate snub. When Beatles’ manager, Brian Epstein, tries to make a televised statement about the misunderstanding, his comments are disrupted by static. Meanwhile, The Beatles are trapped in Manilla.

1969–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1969–Give Peace a Chance by John Lennon (and the Plastic Ono Band) is released in the U.K.

1969–76th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Ann Jones beats Billie Jean King.

1970–One hundred people are injured in race riots in Asbury Park, New Jersey.

1970–George Harrison stops work on his triple LP, All Things Must Pass, and returns home to Liverpool, England, to visit his ailing mother, Louise.

1970–84th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: John Newcombe beats Ken Rosewall.

1971–France conducts a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1971–Andy Creeggan, of Barenaked Ladies, is born Andrew Burnett Creeggan in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada.

1972–William Goldsmith, drummer for the Foo Fighters, is born in Seattle, Washington.

1975–82nd Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Billie Jean King beats Evonne Goolagong.

1976–The United States of America celebrates its Bicentennial (200th anniversary).

1976–Israeli commandos raid Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing all but four of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by Palestinian terrorists.

1977–The George Jackson Brigade plants a bomb at the main power substation for the state capitol in Olympia, Washington, in solidarity with a prison strike at the Walla Walla State Penitentiary Intensive Security Unit.

1979–A 5.4 earthquake near Shanghai, China, kills at least 41 people and injures more than 2,000 others.

1980–George Harrison’s elaborate book, I Me Mine, is published, selling for £148, with only 2,000 copies printed worldwide. Later, when John Lennon reads it, he is upset that he receives only the briefest mention for his role in the development of George’s music. “I was hurt by it,” John tells Playboy magazine. “By glaring omission in the book, my influence on his life is absolutely zilch and nil. In his book, he remembers every two-bit sax player or guitarist he met in subsequent years, yet I’m not mentioned.”

1980–The Beach Boys give a free concert in Miami, Florida, to celebrate Independence Day, attracting an audience of 500,000.

1981–95th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: John McEnroe beats Bjorn Borg (4-6, 7-6, 7-6, 6-4).

1982–Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado is elected President of Mexico.

1982–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1982–Four Iranian diplomats are abducted by Lebanese militia in Lebanon.

1982–96th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Jimmy Connors beats John McEnroe (3-6, 6-3, 6-7, 7-6, 6-4).

1983–U.S. Interior Secretary, James Watt, bans The Beach Boys from playing on Washington, D.C.'s Mall, because he says “the music attracts a bad element.”

1984–Racecar driver, Richard Petty, wins his 200th and final NASCAR Winston cup race.

1987–In France, former Gestapo Chief, Klaus Barbie, is convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to life imprisonment.

1987–94th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Martina Navratilova beats Steffi Graf (7-5, 6-3).

1988–102nd Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Stefan Edberg beats Boris Becker.

1990–France conducts a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1990–Rapper, Fredo Santana, is born Derrick Coleman in Chicago, Illinois.

1992–John Phillips, of The Mamas and The Papas, is given a liver transplant in Los Angeles, California.

1992–99th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Steffi Graf beats Monica Seles (6-2, 6-1).

1993–A Pizza Hut blimp deflates and lands safely on W. 56th Street in New York City.

1993–107th Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Pete Sampras beats Courier.

1994–The Rwandan capital of Kigali, is captured by the Rwandan Patriotic Front, ending the genocide in the city.

1995–Actress, Eva Gabor, dies of pneumonia in Los Angeles, California, at age 76. She is best known for the role of Lisa Douglas on the TV sitcom Green Acres. She appeared in the films The Last Time I Saw Paris, Artists and Models, Gigi, A New Kind of Love, and Youngblood Hawke.

1996–Hot Mail, a free Internet E-mail service, is introduced.

1997–The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, launched by NASA in December 1996, enters the atmosphere of Mars. The Sojourner rover vehicle searches the surface of Mars for rocks, while millions of Earthlings watch on TV and the Internet.

1997–News anchor, Charles Kuralt, dies of systemic lupus erythematosus in New York, New York, at age 62. He is nest known for his long career with the CBS television network, first for his "On the Road" segments on The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, and later as the first anchor of CBS News Sunday Morning, a position he held for 15 years.

1998–Japan launches the Nozomi probe to Mars, joining the United States and Russia as a space exploring nation.

1998–105th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Jana Novotná beats Nathalie Tauziat (6-4, 7-6).

1999–113th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Pete Sampras beats Andre Agassi (6-3, 6-4, 7-5).

1999–106th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Lindsay Davenport beats Steffi Graf (6-4, 7-5).

2002–Winnifred Quick, English-American RMS Titanic survivor, dies.

2003–R&B singer, Barry White, dies of kidney failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 58. He is known for his distinctive bass-baritone voice and romantic image, and his greatest success came in the 1970s as a solo singer and with The Love Unlimited Orchestra, crafting many enduring soul, funk, and disco songs, such as his two biggest hits, You're the First, the Last, My Everything and Can't Get Enough of Your Love, Babe.

2004–The cornerstone of the Freedom Tower is laid on the site of the World Trade Center in New York City.

2004–118th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Roger Federer beats Andy Roddick (4-6, 7-5, 7-6, 6-4).

2004–111th Wimbledon Women’s Tennis: Maria Sharapova beats Serena Williams (6-1, 6-4).

2004–Frank Robinson, an eccentric street entertainer (Xylophone Man) dies in Nottingham, England, at age 72.

2005–The Deep Impact collider hits the comet Tempel 1.

2005–Actress, June Haver, dies of respiratory failure in Brentwood, California, at age 79. She appeared in the films Home in Indiana, Irish Eyes Are Smiling, The Dolly Sisters, Three Little Girls in Blue, Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!, Look for the Silver Lining, The Daughter of Rosie O’Grady, I’ll Get By, Love Nest, and The Girl Next Door.

2006–North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile, and a long-range Taepodong-2.

2007–Bill Pinkney, of The Drifters, dies of a heart attack in Daytona Beach, Florida, at age 81.

2009–The crown on the Statue of Liberty reopens to the public after eight years, due to security reasons following the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001.

2009–Businessman, Allen Klein, dies of respiratory failure in New York, New York, at age 78. He had been suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Klein founded ABKCO Music & Records Incorporated. He revolutionized the income potential of recording artists, who previously had been routinely victimized by onerous record company contracts. He managed both The Beatles and The Rolling Stones. After years of pursuit by the IRS, Klein was convicted of a misdemeanor charge of making a false statement on his 1972 tax return, for which he spent two months in jail in 1980.

2009–Drake Levin, of Paul Revere and the Raiders, dies of cancer at his home in San Francisco, California, at age 62.

2010–124th Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Rafael Nadal beats Tomas Berdych (6-3, 7-5, 6-4).

2010–117th Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Serena Williams beats Vera Zvonareva (6-3, 6-2).

2012–The discovery of particles consistent with the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider is announced at CERN.

2015–Tupou VI is officially crowned as the King of Tonga.

2016–The Juno space probe arrives at the planet Jupiter.

2016–Riots break out in Harare, Zimbabwe, after police attempt to disperse a protest by the city's taxi drivers.

2016–Film director, Abbas Kiarostami, dies of gastrointestinal cancer in Paris, France, at age 76. His films include The Traveler, Where Is the Friend’s Home?, Kelid, Close-up, Life and Nothing More, The White Balloon, Taste of Cherry, Willow and Wind, Ten, and Certified Copy.

2017–Researchers discover that the diversity of frogs is a direct result of the extinction of the dinosaurs.

2017–North Korea test-launches what is presumed to be its first intercontinental ballistic missile 933 km into the Sea of Japan, within Japan's Exclusive Economic Zone. An American expert theorizes the ICBM, which reached an altitude of 2,802 km, could potentially reach the U.S. state of Alaska.

2018–The death toll from a heat wave in Quebec, Canada, rises to 17.

2018–Several people are arrested after protestors hang a sign that reads "Abolish ICE" from the base below the Statue of Liberty in New York. A female protestor scales the base of the statue itself, forcing an evacuation of the island on the busy Fourth of July holiday.

2018–The Polish, Italian, Latvian, Estonian, and Spanish Wikipedias shut down in protest of the European Union's copyright law, blocking access to all visitors.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Theodosius II; Christian III, King of Denmark; the Louisiana Purchase; Thomas Jefferson; Henry David Thoreau's cabin at Walden Pond; Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll; poster for Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show; Paul Boynton's Water Chutes; Swami Vivekananda; Gloria Stuart; Wonderland Park at Ocean Beach near San Diego, California; Giuseppe Bertone; Ann Landers and Abigail Van Buren; Gina Lollobrigida; the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge; The Animals; Geraldo Rivera; logo for Radio Free Europe; the stars of The Fugitive; I Get Around by The Beach Boys; Billie Jean King and Evonne Goolagong; I, Me, Mine by George Harrison; Klaus Barbie; Eva Gabor; Winnifred Quick (left) with her family; June Haver; and Paul Revere and the Raiders.

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