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1971–The Rolling Stones’ documentary, Gimme Shelter, premieres at the Rialto Cinema in London, England. The film includes footage from the infamous concert at Altamont, California, where audience members were knifed by the Hell’s Angels (who were acting as security for the concert).



BC 54–Aurelia Cotta, mother of Gaius Julius Caesar, dies.

BC 30–Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian's forces in the Battle of Alexandria, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide.

781–The oldest recorded eruption of Mount Fuji takes place.

1009–Pope Sergius IV succeeds Pope John XVIII, becoming the 142nd Pope.

1143–Emperor Nijo of Japan is born. He was the 78th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.

1143 – Emperor Nijo of Japan is born.

1201–John Komnenos the Fat attempts to usurp the throne of Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos.

1485–William Caxton publishes Mallory’s Morte D'Arthur.

1492–The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect. Also known as the “Edict of Expulsion,” this was an edict issued on March 31, 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions.

1498–On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad.

1508–Ethiopian Emperor, Na'od, dies.

1527–Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, is born.

1556–Priest and theologian, Ignatius of Loyola, dies. He founded the Society of Jesus.

1588–The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.

1655–In the Russo-Polish War, the Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years.

1658–Aurangzeb is proclaimed Moghul Emperor of India.

1667–The Treaty of Breda ends the second Anglo-Dutch War.

1703–Author, Daniel Defoe, is locked in a pillory frame before Temple Bar in London, Endland, drawing sympathetic crowds who pelt him with flowers instead of mud. His satire, “The Shortest Way with the Dissenters,” was written as if by high churchmen, but its arguments were nonsensical. The pamphlet sold widely, and both sides took it seriously and were equally furious when it was revealed to be a hoax. Defoe was held in Newgate Prison for 15 months, during which time he was displayed in the pillory, head and hands locked in place. His fiction masterpieces still lay ahead of him: Robinson Crusoe in 1719, and Moll Flanders in 1722.

1712–In the Great Northern War, Danish and Swedish ships clash in the Baltic Sea.

1715–Seven days after a Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships left Havana, Cuba for Spain, 11 of them sink in a storm off the coast of Florida. A few centuries later, treasure will be salvaged from these wrecks.

1737–Princess Augusta of Great Britain is born.

1741–Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.

1750–John V of Portugal dies.

1763–Odawa Chief Pontiac's forces defeat British troops at the Battle of Bloody Run during Pontiac's War.

1777–The U.S. Second Continental Congress passes a resolution that the services of Gilbert du Motier be accepted, and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family, and connexions, he have the rank and commission of Major-General of the United States.

1790–The first U.S. patent is issued to inventor Samuel Hopkins for a potash process.

1854–Politician, José Canalejas, is born. He was Prime Minister of Spain.

1856–Christchurch, New Zealand, is chartered as a city.

1865–The first narrow-gauge, mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Queensland, Australia.

1867–Businessman, S.S. Kresge, is born. He founded Kmart.

1875–Politician, Andrew Johnson, dies. He was the 17th President of the United States.

1884–Vietnamese Emperor, Kien Phúc, dies.

1886–Hungarian composer and pianist, Franz Liszt, dies. He was a prolific teacher, and the originator of the symphonic poem. Many of his piano compositions are considered some of the most difficult to play.

1892–Evangelist and publisher, Herbert W. Armstrong, is born. He founded the Worldwide Church of God.

1895–Architect, Richard Morris Hunt, dies in Newport, Rhode Island, at age 67. He was buried at the Common Burying Ground and Island Cemetery in Newport. Several years later, the Municipal Art Society commissioned the Richard Morris Hunt Memorial, which was installed in the wall surrounding Central Park across Fifth Avenue from the Frick Museum in New York City.

1904–Units of the Imperial Japanese Army defeat units of the Imperial Russian Army in a strategic confrontation.

1911–Violinist, George Liberace, is born. He brother was pianist, Liberace.

1912–American economist and libertarian, Milton Friedman, is born in Brooklyn, New York. Friedman was a proponent of the free market economic system, and was opposed to the Federal Reserve System. He taught at the University of Chicago, and acted as advisor to President Ronald Reagan and British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.

1919–The German National Assembly adopts the Weimar Constitution, which comes into force on August 14th.

1919–Sportscaster, Curt Gowdy, is born Curtis Edward Gowdy in Green River, Wyoming. In April 1951, at the age of 31, Gowdy began his tenure as the lead announcer for the Boston Red Sox. For the next 15 years, he called the exploits of Red Sox teams on WHDH radio and on three Boston TV stations: WBZ-TV, WHDH-TV, and WNAC-TV.

1921–Peter Benenson, founder of Amnesty International, is born Peter James Henry Solomon in London, England.

1923–Record producer, Ahmet Ertegun, is born in Istanbul, Turkey. He co-founded Atlantic Records and served as Chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Ertegun has been described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry."

1925–The Unemployment Insurance Act is passed in England.

1927–The Carter Family drive from their Maces Spring, Virginia, home to Bristol, Tennessee, to meet with a Victor Records talent scout. The group passes its audition and goes on to make recording history. Family member, June Carter, would later marry country music legend, Johnny Cash, and The Carter Family would be a part of their touring entourage for many years.

1928–MGM’s “Leo the Lion” roars for the first time, as he introduces the film company’s first talking picture.

1929–Actor, Don Murray, is born.

1930–The radio mystery program, The Shadow, airs for the first time.

1932–The NSDAP (Nazi Party) wins more than 38% of the vote in German elections.

1932–Actor, Ted Cassidy, is born Theodore Crawford Cassidy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is best known for the role of Lurch in the TV series The Addams Family. Noted for his tall stature (6’9”), he tended to play unusual characters in offbeat or science fiction series such as Star Trek and I Dream of Jeannie. He appeared in the films Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, Mackenna's Gold, Goin' Coconuts, The Last Remake of Beau Geste, and Harry and Walter Go to New York.

1935–Actor, Geoffrey (Bond) Lewis, is born in San Diego, California. He appeared in the films Bad Company, The Culpepper Cattle Company, Dillinger, High Plains Drifter, My Name is Nobody, Macon County Line, Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, The Great Waldo Pepper, Salem’s Lot, Bronco Billy, Heaven’s Gate, Tom Horn, Lust in the Dust, Pink Cadillac, Tango & Cash, Point of No Return, and The Man Without a Face. His daughter is actress, Juliette Lewis.

1938–Archaeologists discover engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius the Great in Persepolis (New Persia, present-day Iran).

1941–Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official, Hermann Göring, orders SS General Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question."

1944–Actress, Geraldine Chaplin, is born. Her father was actor, Charlie Chaplin.

1944–Actress and film producer, Sherry Lansing, is born.

1944–Writer, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, dies in a plane crash south of Marseille, France, at age 44. He was a French aristocrat, poet, and pioneering aviator. He is best known for his novella The Little Prince (Le Petit Prince) and for his lyrical aviation writings, including Wind, Sand and Stars and Night Flight.

1945–Pierre Laval, the fugitive former leader of Vichy France, surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria.

1946–Gary Lewis, of Gary Lewis and the Playboys, is born in Los Angeles, California. The pop group’s hit singles include This Diamond Ring and Count Me In. He is the son of comedian-actor, Jerry Lewis.

1948–President Harry Truman helps dedicate New York International Airport (later John F. Kennedy International Airport) at Idlewild Field.

1948–The USS Nevada is sunk by an aerial torpedo, after surviving hits from two atomic bombs (as part of post-war tests) and being used for target practice by three other ships.

1951–Tennis player, Evonne Goolagong Cawley, is born in Australia.

1951–Actor, Barry Van Dyke, is born. His father is actor, Dick Van Dyke.

1956–Actor, Michael Biehn, is born.

1957–Dirk Blocker, is born. His father was actor, Dan Blocker.

1958–Bill Berry, drummer for R.E.M., is born.

1961–At Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts, the first All-Star Game tie in Major League Baseball history occurs when the game is stopped in the ninth inning because of rain.

1962–Actor, Wesley Snipes, is born.

1963–Musician, Fatboy Slim, is born.

1964–Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the Moon, with images 1,000 times clearer than anything ever seen from Earth-bound telescopes.

1964–A Rolling Stones concert in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is stopped after only 12 minutes, when violence breaks out in the audience.

1964–Jim Corr, of The Corrs, is born in Ireland.

1964–Singer, Jim Reeves, dies.

1965–Novelist, J.K. Rowling, is born Joanne Rowling in Yate, Gloucestershire, England. Rowling is best known for her series of Harry Potter fantasy books. The Harry Potter books are the best selling series in publishing history.

1966–In Birmingham, Alabama, a Beatles record-burning event is held to protest John Lennon's "bigger than Jesus" remark.

1966–Actor, Dean Cain, is born.

1966–Cream play their first concert in Windsor, England.

1968–The Beatles give up on the Apple Boutique. It closes down, but with The Beatles doing this in a rather extravagant manner: they give away all of the remaining merchandise, allowing anyone entering the shop to take what they want. This isn't advertised, but word of mouth soon results in a large crowd gathering outside the shop, and the police have to be called in to maintain order.

1969–A day before beginning his reputation-making stand at Las Vegas' International Hotel, Elvis Presley plays a private concert for press and friends, including Wayne Newton, Dick Clark, and Burt Bacharach.

1970–Black Tot Day is the last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.

1970–Chet Huntley retires from NBC-TV News, ending the long-running news show The Huntley-Brinkley Report.

1971–Two American astronauts are the first humans to ride in a vehicle on the Moon. The LRV (lunar rover vehicle) carries Apollo 15 crew members David R. Scott and James B. Irwin for five miles on the lunar surface. Their first stop at the rim of Elbow Crater is televised back to Earth to millions of viewers. The Moon ride lasts two hours and the astronauts are heard to exclaim, “There’s some beautiful geology out there!”

1971–A security guard is stabbed to death at New York’s Forest Hills Stadium on the second night of The Who’s U.S. tour.

1971–The Rolling Stones’ documentary, Gimme Shelter, premieres at the Rialto Cinema in London, England. The film includes footage from the infamous concert at Altamont, California, where audience members were knifed by the Hell’s Angels (who were acting as security for the concert).

1972–In Operation Motorman, the British Army re-takes the urban no-go areas of Northern Ireland. Nine civilians are killed by car bombs in the village of Claudy. It is the biggest British military operation since the Suez Crisis of 1956, and the biggest in Ireland since the Irish War of Independence.

1973–Delta Air Lines jetliner, flight DL 723, crashes while landing in fog at Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts, killing 89 people.

1975–Three members of a popular cabaret band and two gunmen are killed during a botched paramilitary attack in Northern Ireland.

1978–Will Champion, drummer and singer with Coldplay, is born in England.

1980–John Lennon and Yoko Ono arrange a meeting with record producer, Jack Douglas, to discuss working with him on their forthcoming album (Double Fantasy). Douglas, who was engineer on some of John and Yoko’s projects in the early 1970s, initially refuses to take the job unless he is the sole producer, but he eventually agrees to share producing credit with the Lennons.

1980–John Phillips, formerly of The Mamas and The Papas, is arrested for allegedly dealing drugs out of his New York summer home.

1980–Bobby Van, actor, singer, and dancer, dies of brain cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 51. His stage appearances include On Your Toes, Oklahoma! and No, No, Nanette. He appeared in the films Skirts Ahoy!, The Affairs of Dobie Gillis, Kiss Me Kate, and Lost Horizon.

1987–Film producer, Joseph E. Levine, dies.

1988–Thirty-two people are killed and 1,674 are injured when a bridge at the Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal collapses in Butterworth, Penang, Malaysia.

1991–The United States and the Soviet Union both sign the START I Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, the first to reduce (with verification) both countries' stockpiles.

1992–Georgia joins the United Nations.

1992–Thai Airways International Flight 311 crashes into a mountain north of Kathmandu, Nepal, killing all 113 people on board.

1992–Baseball player, José Fernández, is born in Santa Clara, Cuba. He was a Cuban American professional baseball pitcher who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Miami Marlins from 2013 through 2016.

1993–Baudouin of Belgium dies.

1999–NASA intentionally crashes the Lunar Prospector spacecraft into the Moon, ending its mission to detect frozen water on the Moon's surface.

2004–Actress, Virginia Grey, dies in Woodland Hills, California, at age 87. She appeared in the films Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Great Ziegfeld, The Women, Mr. and Mrs. North, Stage Door Canteen, The Rose Tattoo, All That Heaven Allows, Jeanne Eagels, Portrait in Black, Tammy Tell Me True, Back Street, Flower Drum Song, Madame X, and Airport!

2005–Dutch economist and politician, Wim Duisenberg, dies. He was the first President of the European Central Bank.

2006–Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, hands over power to his brother, Raúl Castro.

2007–Operation Banner comes to an end. It involved the presence of the British Army in Northern Ireland for the longest-running operation in history.

2010–Producer, director, and screenwriter, Tom Mankiewicz, dies of pancreatic cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 68. His films include The Sweet Ride, Diamonds Are Forever, Live and Let Die, Mother, Jugs and Speed, The Cassandra Crossing, The Eagle Has Landed, Superman, Ladyhawke, Dragnet, and Delirious.

2012–Journalist, author, and screenwriter, Gore Vidal, dies of pneumonia at his home in Hollywood Hills, California, at age 86. As a political commentator and essayist, Vidal’s principal subject was the history of the United States and its society. His political and cultural essays were published in The Nation, The New Statesman, and Esquire magazines. His works include the plays Visit to a Small Planet and The Best Man; his novels include The City and the Pillar, Myra Breckinridge, and 1876; and his screenplays include The Catered Affair, Ben Hur, Caligula, and Dress Gray.

2013–Actor, Michael Ansara, dies following a long illness at his home in Calabasas, California, at age 91. He is best known for the role of Cochise in the Western TV series Broken Arrow. He was also seen in dozens of other TV shows, including Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Rifleman, The Untouchables, The Outer Limits, I Dream of Jeannie, Bewitched, Gunsmoke, and Star Trek. He appeared in the films Soldiers Three, My Favorite Spy, The Lawless Breed, White Witch Doctor, The Robe, Road to Bali, Julius Caesar, The Egyptian, The Ten Commandments, The Sad Sack, The Greatest Story Ever Tiold, Harum Scarum, Texas Across the River, and The Manitou.

2014–Gas explosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, kill at least 20 people and injure more than 270 others.

2015–Writer and critic, Alan Cheuse, dies of injuries from a car accident in San Jose, California, at age 75. He was reported to be in a coma on July 20, 2015, with injuries including fractured ribs, cervical vertebrae, and an acute subdural hematoma. In the late 1970s he wrote short fiction, beginning with a story in The New Yorker, followed with articles for Ploughshares, The Antioch Review, Prairie Schooner, and New Letters. He was a regular book reviewer for the NPR radio program All Things Considered.

2015–Wrestler, Roddy Piper, dies in his sleep after a heart attack at his home in Hollywood, California, at age 61. In professional wrestling, he is best known for his work with the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, present-day WWE) in the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. He earned the nickname "Rowdy" by displaying his trademark "Scottish" rage, spontaneity, and quick wit. Despite being a crowd favorite for his rock star-like persona, he often played a villain.

2016–Skydiver, Luke Aikins, sets a world record for jumping from a height of 25,000 feet without a parachute or wing suit.

2016–Burger chain, Byron Hamburger, in London, England, is forced close two locations after protesters released hundreds of live cockroaches, locusts, and crickets into the restaurants. Two activist groups, London Black Revs and Malcolm X Movement, took the action in retaliation against an immigration raid at the popular restaurant chain.

2016–At least one person is killed and several others are injured in two shooting incidents in Austin, Texas.


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